International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer <div class="container" style="text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; margin-right: 20px; padding-left: 0px;"> <div class="col-lg-8" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"> <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;" data-ride="carousel"><!-- Indicators --> <ol class="carousel-indicators"> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="1">&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="2">&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="3">&nbsp;</li> </ol> <!-- Wrapper for slides --> <div class="carousel-inner" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"> <div class="item active" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 785px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="231"></div> <div class="item" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 788px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer1.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="232"></div> <div class="item" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 788px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer2.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="232"></div> </div> <!-- Left and right controls --> <a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="prev"> <span class="sr-only">Previous</span> </a> <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="next"> <span class="sr-only">Next</span> </a></div> </div> </div> <p class="btn btn-warning" style="text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">Aims and Scope of the Journal &nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;"><strong>International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research (IJAAER)</strong> is an open access, free and peer reviewed journal, publishing original research and review articles in the field of Agriculture and Environmental Science. IJAAER welcomes outstanding contributions from around the world, especially from developing countries.&nbsp;IJAAER is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing a wide range of high quality papers that develop the fundamental science of agriculture and environment. The paper should address new developments within the frame of monitoring, modelling, mitigation and management of agricultural and environmental issues. &nbsp;</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">IJAAER covers a wide variety of topics relating to both: &nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">(a) Agricultural Sciences, such as Sustainable agriculture, natural resources management, agronomy, horticulture, soil sciences, plant breeding and genetics, plant physiology, microbiology, weed science, biotechnology, plant pathology, plant protection, food science, agricultural mechanization, water management, arid agriculture, agricultural engineering, agricultural policies and legislations, and the interaction of agriculture with environment;</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">(b) Environmental Sciences, such as sustainable development, climate change, atmospheric science, meteorology, air pollution, emission and source apportionment, water pollution, soil pollution, GIS and remote sensing, natural hazards (flash floods, earth quake, snow storm, sand storms etc.), transport studies, environmental modelling, environmental monitoring, environmental management, environmental impacts, environmental engineering, economics of environmental pollution control, environmental policy and legislation, case studies on environmental issues,&nbsp; innovative technologies and other related subjects.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">The manuscript should address issues related to the above topics on local, regional, or global scales.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">Manuscript written only in English language (British/American) are considered for this journal. Poor English is one of the most common reasons for manuscript rejection, therefore kindly check your language carefully before submission. Remember this is an open access journal and publishes manuscripts free of charge. Open access (in contrast to closed access or subscription-based access) journals increase visibility, usage, and&nbsp;impact&nbsp;of your research work, thus making research findings more effective and beneficial. IJAAER releases four issues annually in March, June, September, and December.</span></p> en-US kawsar@ijaaer.com (Dr. Kawsar Ali) webadmin@ijaaer.com (Web Administrator) Sat, 20 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 SHADE AND FERTILIZER IMPACT ON PATCHOULI: A CASE STUDY IN PANEROKAN VILLAGE, INDONESIA https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/234 <p>Patchouli is one of the plants that have high economic value, besides contributing foreign exchange to the<br>country of Indonesia, this plant also has a high use value as a raw material for cosmetics and various other<br>industries. This study tried to test the variation of fertilizers and shade on the characteristics and essential<br>oils produced by patchouli plants. The variation of fertilizer used is 40 gr Urea + 20 gr TSP + 20 gr KCl, 40<br>gr Urea + 20 gr TSP + 20 gr KCl + 10 gr Kiserit, 20 gr Urea + 10 gr TSP + 10 gr KCl + 2 kg patchouli waste<br>compost and 20 gr Urea + 10 gr TSP + 10 gr KCl + 5 gr Kiserit + 2 kg patchouli waste compost. The method<br>used in this study is a completely random design with two factors and three repetitions. The results of this<br>study inform that the shade and variation of fertilizer applied to have an effect on the characteristics of<br>stem height, leaf width, number of branches, and essential oils produced by patchouli plants.</p> Anis Tatik Maryan, Rikky Herdiansyah, Yudha Gusti Wibowo Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/234 Sat, 20 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 MITIGATION OF GREENHOUSE GASSES (N2O & CO2) EMISSION AND ENHANCEMENT OF NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY VIA BAMBOO BIOCHAR APPLICATION. https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/235 <p>The study investigated the combined application effects of bamboo biochar and two different fertilizers<br>(rapeseed waste and NPK fertilizer 14:14:14) on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)<br>emissions. The suppression of soil N2O and CO2 was investigated in an eight-week pot experiment<br>comprising of 6 treatments of amendments with 4 replications as unfertilized soil (C), amended soils with<br>biochar (B), chemical fertilizer (NPK), rapeseed waste (RW), and their combination with biochar as NPKB<br>and RWB. Nitrogen was applied at 30g Nm-2 with that of biochar at 1.5 kgm-2<br>. Radish (Raphanus sativus)<br>seeds were cultivated for the study.<br>Applied biochar suppressed N2O emission from rapeseed waste and NPK fertilizer, because N2O<br>cumulative emission by the end of the study in NPKB (-0.07 kg N ha-1 Period-1<br>) was lower than that in NPK<br>(0.54 kg N ha-1 Period-1<br>) with RWB (0.45 kg N ha-1Period-1<br>) also being lower than RW (1.44 kg N ha-1<br>Period-1<br>) treatments respectively. Further, higher nitrogen uptake and Agronomic use Efficiency of<br>Nitrogen (AEN) were recorded in the RWB and NPKB treatments as compared to the RW and NPK<br>treatments. The C and B treatments recorded the lowest yield (edible root) while the RWB and NPKB<br>treatments outperformed the NPK treatment by 185.9 % and 137.1 %, respectively.Combined application<br>of fertilizers and bamboo biochar suppressed N2O while also contributed to the growth and yield of radish.</p> BASIM ALHASSAN, YO TOMA, HIDETO UENO Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/235 THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF UPLAND RICE IN THE NORTH WEST REGION OF CAMEROON CASE STUDY BAMENDA III SUB-DIVISION https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/236 <p>Cameroon’s rice demand has been on an increase due to increasing population, urbanization and changing consumer<br>preferences. The resulting effect has been increased importation of rice into the country consequently straining foreign<br>exchange accounts. Insufficiency in the rice supply is related to the low national average yield of 1.5t/ha. New upland rice<br>varieties that are high yielding have been introduced in the country to improve national supply, save wetlands, fight food<br>insecurity and improve incomes of the rural poor.<br>Scope and purpose<br>This study was conducted in North West Region of Cameroon in Nkwen Bamenda III Sub-Division. It examined whether<br>farmers were technically efficient in input use to generate the required output levels and the farm specific factors that were<br>affecting their adaptation and productivity.<br>Methodology<br>A total of 60 respondents were randomly selected from three rice producing villages using a sampling frame generated by<br>the sub-delegation of agriculture mile four Nkwen. Analysis was accomplished using Microsoft Excel.<br>Results<br>Results revealed that production of upland rice involved excessive use of labour. It was also found that Productivity of upland<br>rice producers were below the frontier level. Attainment of primary five education significantly improved efficiency of<br>farmers.<br>Conclusion and recommendations<br>For farm level Productivity of upland rice to improve, yield improving and labour saving technologies need to be introduced<br>notably soil enriching aspects like both organic and inorganic fertilizers. For labour saving technologies, use pre or post<br>emergency herbicides and mechanization of the upland rice would be a better move in the right direction. Lastly promoting<br>primary education and specialised extension services that target upland rice will improve efficiency greatly thus increasing<br>productivity.</p> FRANCIS TAKWI Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/236 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY CATTLE PRODUCTION IN ETHIOPIA. A REVIEW https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/237 <p>The climate is one of the powerful highlights for production and reproduction in farm animals all through the<br>world. In this way, environmental change negatively impacts dairy cattle production, both directly and indirectly.<br>Africa's animal's segment will be explicitly influenced by climate changes through changes in the pattern and<br>amount of precipitation, an increase in temperature, changes in winds, changes in seasonality, progressively visit<br>disastrous occasions, a drop-off in feed and fodder production, decreased water accessibility, changing shapes<br>and distribution of disease, modifications in the market and money related estimations of products.<br>Nevertheless, Ethiopia has a diversified climate, which has a distinctive size and a decent variety of significant<br>Agro-ecological zones render it appropriate for the livelihood of substantial numbers and classifications of<br>animals. In this regard, dairy production is practiced almost completely over the world requiring a tremendous<br>figure of small subsistence and market-situated ranches. At that point, dairy farming is exposed to environmental<br>change through expanded temperatures and changes in rain patterns. Then again, lactating dairy cows prefer<br>surrounding temperatures running from 5 °C and 25 °C, the 'thermoneutral' zone (TNZ). In temperature exceeds<br>this, cattle are obliged to these higher temperatures must be applied. All things considered, high temperatures<br>decline in feed intake to reduce digestive heat production, lessen grazing time (animals don't graze in hot late<br>morning hours), and sweating and water take-up. Regardless, natural temperature above 35°C induces pressure<br>reaction systems in lactating dairy cows. Correspondingly, a thermal environment is a significant component that<br>influences milk production in dairy cow, particularly on animals of high genetic merit, and milk yield decline by<br>0.2kg per unit increment THI when it beat 72. So also, the vulnerability of livestock to thermal stress decreases<br>the dry matter intake that may adversely impact the growth performance of the animal. Subsequently, the issue of<br>high-temperature weight on the crossbred was more than indigenous species. Increments in temperature to the<br>tune of 2-6 °C related to global warming adversely influence growth, puberty, and maturity of animals separated<br>from holding up the achievement of puberty. Therefore, adaptation and mitigation can have noteworthy effects on<br>the off chance that they become some portion of national and provincial arrangements. Adjustment measures<br>include production and management system alterations, breeding strategies, institutional and insurance changes,<br>logical control and innovation progresses, and changing ranchers' observation and versatile limit. Then again,<br>mitigation techniques were management practices (stocking rate, level, and kind of feed supplementation), forage<br>types, the genetic selection for improved feed effectiveness, and feed added substances planned for decreasing<br>methane emissions</p> Debele Guta Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/237 ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF S. LYCOPERSICUM L. GENOTYPES AFTER APPLYING DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF DIFFERENT EFFLUENTS. https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/238 <p>Tomato (S. Lycopersicum esculentum L.) is an edible fruit but many nutritionists consider it a vegetable<br>along with fruit. It is most widely grown crop in the world, including Pakistan. Many factories are dumping<br>their effluents into river and seas. Due to water scarcity, farmers are irrigating their crops by alternate<br>ways. The objective of this research to determine which concentration of which industrial effluents is good<br>for tomato plant growth. In this research, the different effluents (Domestic, Oil and Textile industry) in<br>different concentration (Control, 25%, 50% and 75%) used to know the impact of effluents on growth of 5<br>genotypes (ROMA-VF, AGRO MART, Red TARA, SULTAN F1 and HERO 110) of S. Lycopersicum L. The<br>experiment was performed with triplicates under CRD. Plant material was digested for determination of<br>heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cd, Ni, Hg and Pb) by wet digestion method. Meteorological study,<br>water and soil analysis of the studied area was also done. The growth of the plants stopped, their color<br>became dull and the inner cells were damaged at high concentration of all effluents. A study of morphology,<br>anatomy and physiology concluded that 25% concentration of domestic and oil industry effluents are<br>somewhat acceptable, but none of concentration of effluents of textile industry was good for growth. The<br>growth of plants were declining, internal structure was being destroyed, the level of chlorophyll content<br>was decreasing, but the amount of heavy metals in the fruit was increasing as the amount of heavy metals<br>increased along with increased concentrations. Duncan test at 5% probability level and correlation<br>(Pearson) analysis was used to establish the liaison between the morphological traits, physiological<br>attributes and anatomical traits respectively. The present comprehensive study provides a basic point and<br>enhances the knowledge of farmer related to use of different effluents.</p> Zobia Anwer, Siddra Shabir, Qurat Ul AIn, Hanan Ahmad, Muhammad Amjid, Wajeeha Khan, Laiba Ashraf Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/238 PREPARATION OF VERMICOMPOST BY USING AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/239 <p>The agro-industrial sector of India contributes both plant materials and animal dung in the form of compost. On the other hand, a<br>decline in sustainability in agricultural production is also appearing as a major threat to our countries in recent days. Hence<br>vermicomposting is one of the best processes for decomposing organic waste in an economically and environmentally friendly<br>process. Nowadays the availability of organic manures is being a big problem. To compensate this major attention has to be paid<br>to the recycling of industrial organic waste. Such reuse of the industrial organic wastes in agriculture may help in sustaining the<br>soil health apart from abatement of environmental pollution. In the present study, vermicompost is prepared by using organic<br>manure (cow dung and poultry dung), industrial organic waste (sugar cane bagasse and press mud), and agriculture product<br>(rice straw) with a definite proportion. A total of twelve mixes were prepared using the above materials and cultured by Eisenia<br>Fetida for 60 days. For evaluation for the quality of vermicompost obtained from the vermiculture tank, Capsicum Annum is<br>cultivated by the produced vermicompost from the vermiculture tank. It is found that the vermicompost produced from the mixture<br>of poultry dung, press mud and bagasse (Mix M8) is the better quality of vermicompost than other mixes and reflected<br>morphological parameters in the better manner of cultivated plants than other mixes. The present study aims to promote soil<br>health and plant growth, using a new type of compost instead of microbial composting of cattle dung or chemical fertilizer.</p> BADRINARAYAN RATH, PRABU VELUSAMY, DHIVYA BALAMOORTHY, BEKESHA MERERA Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/239 ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT CRUDE EXTRACTS OF Schizophyllym commune MYCELIA GROWN ON COCONUT WATER https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/241 <p>The antibacterial potential of crude extracts of Schizophyllum commune mycelia grown on coconut water was<br>determined against different pathogenic bacteria. Among the extracts, dichloromethane was found to be the most suitable<br>in extracting antibacterial compounds from S. commune mycelia as its extracts gave the highest zones of inhibition at<br>concentrations of 100mg/ml and 200mg/ml against gram + bacteria including Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus<br>aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATTC. Therefore, S. commune mycelia can be a potential source of antibacterial agents<br>that can be mass produced. Furthermore, the coconut water medium may also contain a more useful bioactive compounds,<br>hence, must be extracted for further evaluation of its antibacterial capacity.</p> MARK LOUIE S. TORRES, RENATO G. REYES Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/241 ON THE PRESENCE OF THE NON-NATIVE BEROE OVATA BRUGUIÈRE, 1789 AND THE SPREAD OFF THE INVASIVE MNEMIOPSIS LEIDYI A. AGASSIZ, 1865 IN THE LEBANESE WATERS, EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/240 <p>The two non-native ctenophores Beroe ovata Bruguière, 1789 and Mnemiopsis leidyi A.<br>Agassiz, 1865, were reported off the Lebanese waters. Beroe ovata Bruguière, 1789, a specialized<br>predator on Mnemiopsis leidyi, was collected and photographed, on May 2th 2019 during<br>fieldwork in Beirut waters. While, Mnemiopsis leidyi was reported for the first time on April 27th<br>2009, to date, it is widely distributed from the south to the north of the Lebanese waters. The most<br>possible pathway of the introduction of those species is a spreading, or bringing with ballast<br>waters from the Black Sea.</p> Ali Badreddine, Ghazi Bitar, Anthony Ouba, Tamara Shiganova Copyright (c) https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/240