International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer <div class="container" style="text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in; margin-right: 20px; padding-left: 0px;"> <div class="col-lg-8" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"> <div id="myCarousel" class="carousel slide" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;" data-ride="carousel"><!-- Indicators --> <ol class="carousel-indicators"> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="1">&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="2">&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" data-target="#myCarousel" data-slide-to="3">&nbsp;</li> </ol> <!-- Wrapper for slides --> <div class="carousel-inner" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"> <div class="item active" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 785px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="231"></div> <div class="item" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 788px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer1.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="232"></div> <div class="item" style="padding-left: 0px; margin-left: 0px;"><img style="width: 788px;" src="http://ijaaer.com/footer2.jpg" alt="Slider Picture" height="232"></div> </div> <!-- Left and right controls --> <a class="left carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="prev"> <span class="sr-only">Previous</span> </a> <a class="right carousel-control" href="#myCarousel" data-slide="next"> <span class="sr-only">Next</span> </a></div> </div> </div> <p class="btn btn-warning" style="text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">Aims and Scope of the Journal &nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;"><strong>International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research (IJAAER)</strong> is an open access, free and peer reviewed journal, publishing original research and review articles in the field of Agriculture and Environmental Science. IJAAER welcomes outstanding contributions from around the world, especially from developing countries.&nbsp;IJAAER is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing a wide range of high quality papers that develop the fundamental science of agriculture and environment. The paper should address new developments within the frame of monitoring, modelling, mitigation and management of agricultural and environmental issues. &nbsp;</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">IJAAER covers a wide variety of topics relating to both: &nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">(a) Agricultural Sciences, such as Sustainable agriculture, natural resources management, agronomy, horticulture, soil sciences, plant breeding and genetics, plant physiology, microbiology, weed science, biotechnology, plant pathology, plant protection, food science, agricultural mechanization, water management, arid agriculture, agricultural engineering, agricultural policies and legislations, and the interaction of agriculture with environment;</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">(b) Environmental Sciences, such as sustainable development, climate change, atmospheric science, meteorology, air pollution, emission and source apportionment, water pollution, soil pollution, GIS and remote sensing, natural hazards (flash floods, earth quake, snow storm, sand storms etc.), transport studies, environmental modelling, environmental monitoring, environmental management, environmental impacts, environmental engineering, economics of environmental pollution control, environmental policy and legislation, case studies on environmental issues,&nbsp; innovative technologies and other related subjects.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">The manuscript should address issues related to the above topics on local, regional, or global scales.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; background: white; box-sizing: border-box; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0in 0in 7.5pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica','sans-serif'; color: #333333;">Manuscript written only in English language (British/American) are considered for this journal. Poor English is one of the most common reasons for manuscript rejection, therefore kindly check your language carefully before submission. Remember this is an open access journal and publishes manuscripts free of charge. Open access (in contrast to closed access or subscription-based access) journals increase visibility, usage, and&nbsp;impact&nbsp;of your research work, thus making research findings more effective and beneficial. IJAAER releases four issues annually in March, June, September, and December.</span></p> Pakistan Society of Scientific Research en-US International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Research 2518-6116 EVALUATION OF BACTERIAL AND FERTILITY STATUS OF RAWALPINDI CULTIVATED SOIL WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON FLUORIDE CONTENT https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/322 <p>Soil contains variety of the microscopic organism (bacteria, virus and fungi) and chemical compounds<br>(organic and inorganic). This research work focus to calculate the physical and chemical parameter of the<br>agriculture soil of selected land of Rawalpindi with addition to prokaryotes. Different methods were followed to<br>assess the physiochemical characteristics. Further isolated bacteria were identified by gram staining,<br>microscopy and different biochemical tests. Findings of this research revealed that the pH was neutral which<br>indicate the low availability of the nutrients for plants, apart from this all other physiochemical properties were<br>in lower limits. Besides this fluorine ion were in range allotted by the WHO, but fluorine in the 0-21cm was<br>more abundant than deeper layer (22-41). In targeted areas the site one has the higher concentration of the<br>fluorine ion as compared to all other sites. In bacterial fauna Gram + bacteria were dominant in which<br>predominant species was Arthrobacter. Current study concluded that using of the fertilizer can enhance the soil<br>fertility hence the production but with strong check and balance on the fluorine ion to prevent any serious future<br>consequences.</p> Haroon Ilahi Fazli Wahid Rafi Ullah Muhammad Adnan Jehangir Ahmad Muhammad Azeem Ijaz Amin Hazrat Amin Copyright (c) 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 6 3 177 183 EFFECT OF FARM SERVICES CENTER APPRAOCH ON YIELD OF SELECTED VEGETABLES IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/318 <p>This study was conducted in the year 2016 to evaluate the effectiveness of Farm Services Center (FSC)<br>regarding selected vegetables yield improvement in District Charsadda. For this purpose, a total of 234<br>respondents were selected based on Sekaran sampling technique. To probe the sampled respondents, a wellstructured and planned interview schedule was prepared. Results of the present study revealed that maximum of<br>the sampled respondents (32%) were from middle (31-40 years) age category. About 71% of the respondents were<br>literate. It was found that 46 % of respondents cultivated their own lands. Results regarding provision of fertilizer<br>by FSC showed that 23% of respondents reported it very high on likert scale whereas only 4% of the respondents<br>reported it very low. It was concluded that the yield of Cauliflower, Bitter gourd, Bottle gourd, Potato and Squash<br>has increased after the registration with FSC with a difference of 498, 2932, 2644, 1657 and 2765 kg acre-1<br>,<br>respectively. The P-value showed significant increase in income of all the vegetables after registration with FSC<br>at 5 % level of significance. Majority of the member farmers trusted on the recommendations of FSC and<br>therefore, they frequently contacted them for the solution of their problems. Hence it is recommended that FSC<br>may provide the agricultural inputs on the lowest possible price to get maximum income from their vegetable<br>production along with the further encouragement of farmers’ community to be registered with FSC to be benefitted<br>from their services.</p> Muhammad Zafar Ullah Shah Saud Ahmad Ayesha Khan Urooba Pervaiz Shah Saud Mehmood Iqbal Muhammad Arshad Farooq Copyright (c) 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 6 3 185 190 CYTOGENETICS OF COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS, ITS CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN COTTON https://ijaaer.com/ojs/index.php/ijaaer/article/view/335 <p>The production of Cotton "Gossypium hirsutum" is facing severe challenges in Pakistan, due to<br>many biotic and a-biotic factors. However still it is considered as a significant cash crop in the country.<br>While digging deep, the severe threat to cotton productivity in Pakistan is rooted in the "Cotton leaf curl<br>virus (CLCuV)." Such a virus belongs to the genus Begomovirus of the Geminiviridae family and whitefly<br>Bemisia tabaci is responsible for its transmission. CLCu, specific indications are veins swelling, curling<br>as well as enations formation under the leaf of an infected plant. By the emergence of a recombinant<br>strain derived from CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV named Cotton leaf curl Burewal virus (CLCuBuV), the<br>disease spread in epidemic form in-country during 2006-07 while breaking all the resistance previously<br>present in Gossypium hirsutum genotypes. The wild species such as "Gossypium anomalum, Gossypium<br>capitisviridis, Gossypium sticksii, Gossypium somalense, Gossypium longicalyx, Gossypium<br>gossypioides, Gossypium laxum and Gossypium areysianum" are a good source of resistance genes<br>against CLCuV and can be used in interspecific hybridization for gene transfer through conventional<br>breeding. Moreover, the use of advanced biotechnology tools such as marker-assisted selection and<br>transgenic approaches could help develop resistance against this disease.</p> MUHAMMAD ASIM BHUTTA HAFEEZ UR REHMAN UMER FAROOQ MUHAMMAD ZUBAIR ISHAQ Copyright (c) 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 6 3 191 196