ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Current Issue June, 2018 (Published)
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
EFFECTS OF ZINC, BORON AND SULPHUR ON THE YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF WHEAT CROP

A field trial was carried out to investigate the effects of Zn, B and S when applied alone or in combination on the yield and nutrient uptake of wheat at New Developmental Farm the University of Agricultural Peshawar during winter season 2010. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design replicated three times having row to row distance of 25 cm and plot size of 3x5 m2. The NPK fertilizers were applied at rate of 120:90:60 kg ha-1in the farm of urea, DAP and potassium chloride, respectively. Sulphur, zinc and boron were applied at rate of 60:10:2 kg ha-1 in form of ammonium sulfate, hepta-hydrated zinc sulfate and borax, respectively. All the treatments revealed significant (P<0.05) differences for all the traits. The treatment receiving zinc, boron and sulphur was significantly higher which showed maximum dry matter yield and grain yield. Significantly higher1000-grain weight was found in treatment of Zn with S Uptake of leaves P, B, SO4-S and Zn was found significantly higher in the treatment of S + B + Zn. The overall result suggested that when sulphur, zinc and boron applied at the rate of 60:10:2 kg ha-1collectively produced maximum yield.

SAHIB JAN, NASRULLAH, RAFIULLAH, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL KHAN, IKRAM ULLAH, MUHAMMAD IZHAR SHAFI AND FAZAL-E-RAB 78-83 Download
2
ESTIMATES CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AMONG YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN TWENTY CHICKPEA GENOTYPES

An experiment was conducted in The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during growing season 2013 to estimate correlation coefficient among yield and yield attributing traits in twenty chickpea genotypes. Total of (10 desi and 10 kabuli) genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant height showed positive and highly significant correlation with 100-seed weight, while negative and highly significant correlation recorded with seeds pod-1 and harvest index. Secondary branches exhibited positive significant association with pods plant-1 and 100-seed weight while negative significant interrelationship found with seeds pod-1 and harvest index. Pods plant-1 revealed negative significant association with seed yield (kg ha-1 ), seeds pod-1 and harvest index. Positive correlation of seeds pod-1 presented with harvest index. Highly significant and positive correlation of seed yield (kg ha-1 ) was observed with harvest index and seeds pod-1 , while significantly negative relationship observed with 100-seed weight. Harvest index and seeds pod-1 would be the appropriate selection criteria for better seed yield in chickpea.

QUAID HUSSAIN , NAZIR AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ADNAN, RASHID MABOOD AND AMIR SOHAIL 84-87 Download
3
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEDIA ON THE GROWTH OF Hamelia patens PROPAGATING THROUGH CUTTING

An experiment entitled “the effect of different media on the growth of Hamelia patens propagating through cutting” was conducted at the Commercial Ornamental plant nursery, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2009. In this experiment Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used. Cutting were sown on July 2009 to medium size plastic bags containing three different types of media i.e. M1(mushroom + silt + garden soil), M2 (farm yard manure + silt + garden soil) and M3 (leaf mold + silt + garden soil). Data were recorded on number of sprouted leaves, number of branches, length of branches, number of root per plant, root length, and percentage of survival. The data revealed that media of farm yard manure + silt + garden soil gave the best result with respect to number of sprouted leaves per plant (14.66), number of branches per plant (4.66), length of branches per plant (25.16 cm), number of roots per plant (18.00). root length per plant (16.33 cm) and survival percentage (100.00 %).While media of leaf mold + silt + garden soil gave the poorest or minimum value with regard to number of sprouted leaves per plant (11.66), number of branches per plant (3.00), length of branches per plant (23.7cm), number of roots per plant (17.03),root length per plant (12.3 cm) and survival percentage (97.7%). It can be concluded that media of farm yard manure + silt + garden soil are best for Hamelia patens propagating through cuttings.

AMMARA SAEED , NEELAM ARA , FARZANA BEGUM , MOHAMMAD ILYAS AND NAGINA ZEB 88-91 Download
4
AGRICULTURAL AID TO SMALLHOLDER FARMERS AND FOOD SECURITY IN CAMEROON

This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of agricultural aid to smallholder farmers on food security in Cameroon, the case of Santa Subdivision. Data was collected using questionnaires administered to 202 smallholder farmers from simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics, logistic model and covariance matrix. The results on the socioeconomic characteristics of smallholder farmers revealed that the majority of smallholder farmers’ aid beneficiaries were mostly educated married men. Results from the logistic regression showed that, agricultural aid is strongly correlating with food security, while the covariance matrix revealed that the major constraints faced by smallholder farmers are: access to farms, farm to market infrastructure, storage facilities, access to credit and application of agricultural inputs. Policy aiming at improving farmers’ access to agricultural inputs, infrastructure, capacity building, participatory management and access to credits will accelerate agricultural production in Cameroon.

 

MBU DANIEL TAMBI AND NGESANG NGIQUEH NGETLEH 92-104 Download
5
LIFE TABLE OF POTATO LEAF MINER Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) TO STUDY THE BIOLOGY AND NATURE OF DAMAGE UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

The life table study of Pea leaf miner, Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard, was conducted in laboratory of Entomology division of Nepal Agricultural Research Council with the aim to understand the patterns in the development, survival and mortality of pea leaf miner along with the nature of damage in laboratory condition. The results explained that oviposition and feeding punctures were significantly higher in lower foliage than in upper foliage level. It was observed that there was low mortality in adult stages (13.72%) compared to other life stages (egg: 48.26%, larva: 41.17% and pupa: 27.14%, respectively). Male and female ratio was 1:1.39 with the average of 13.60±1.53:19.00±1.84 in the laboratory condition whereas in the field condition, it was 0.98:1. The average egg, larval, and pupal development period of L. huidobrensis recorded were 4.75±0.335; 10.08±0.238 and 12.19±0.233 days respectively. The average survival time period of male and female feeding only honey and water was 5.78±0.86 and 3.22±0.954 days, respectively. It was concluded that the mortality trend was stage specific and adult ovipositional and feeding preferences is more towards the older, thicker and larger lower leaves

SHIVA SHANKAR BHATTARAI AND DEEPAKAR RUPAKHETI 105-110 Download
6
GENETIC VARIABLITY IN RICE POUPLATIONS AT MINGORA SWAT

An experiment entitled “genetic variability in rice populations at Mingora Swat” was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Mingora Swat during rice growing season 2015 in randomize complete block (RCB) design with three replications. A set of six rice lines in comparison with check cultivar were evaluated to study the genetic variability among rice genotypes. Data were recorded for days to 50% flowering, days to 50% maturity, plant height, tillers per plant, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) for most of the traits. The least days to flowering were recorded in line Japonica while maximum days were recorded for line Cibogo. Maximum days to maturity were recorded for lines Cibogo and PK3445-3-2 while minimum were recorded for line Japonica. Maximum plant height was attained by check cultivar fakhr-e-malakand while minimum by line Cibogo. Tillers per plant were observed maximum in check cultivar and minimum for line Pk3445-3-2. Line Pk3445-3-2 showed maximum grains per panicle and minimum by Japonica. The 1000-grain weight and grain yield were observed maximum in check cultivar and observed minimum in line Japonica. All of the traits were observed from moderate to high heritability. Grain yield showed positive and significant correlation with biological yield while other traits showed positive correlation with grain yield. Check cultivar Fakhr-e-malakand showed high grain yield while lines PK3445-3-2 and IR64 were nearer to check cultivar grain yield. Lowest grain yield was observed for line Japonica. A cross combination of line Japonica and Fakr-e-malakand can give beneficial result in breeding program to obtained a sustainable variety in future.

 

MUHAMMAD AYOUB KHAN, ZAID KHAN, SAJJAD AHMAD, BARKAT ALI AND HAFEEZ UR RAHIM 111-114 Download
7
YIELD AND QUALITY OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATIONS

A trial entitled“yield and quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum l.) as influenced by different calcium and magnesium concentrations” were conducted at Horticulture Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Calcium at the rate of (0%, 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45 %,) and Magnesium at the rate of (0%, 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.12%) were applied as foliar spray using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Maximum Number of flowers cluster-1 (5.96), number of fruits cluster-1 (4.45), fruit weight (79.04 g), fruits kg-1 (12.83), total yield (ton ha-1 ) (22.83) was observed in plants with 0.30% Calcium application and number of defectives fruits (143.73) were observed in plants with control fertilizers condition. Similarly, maximum number of flowers cluster-1 (6.34), number of fruits cluster-1 (4.57) fruit weight (77.01 g), fruits kg-1 (12.68), total yield ton ha-1 (21.39) were observed in plants with 0.08% Magnesium application and number of defectives fruits (140.94) were observed in plants with control fertilizers condition. Among various treatments used Calcium and Magnesium at the rate of 0.30% and 0.08 % showed better result in most of the growth and yield parameters.

MOHAMMAD ILYAS , GOHAR AYUB , FARZANA BEGUM , MANZOOR AHMAD AND AZMAT ALI AWAN 115-119 Download
8
OPTIMIZATING WATER AND SULFURIC ACID RATES FOR DISSOLUTION OF HAZARA ROCK PHOSPHATE

Hazara Rock Phosphate ores are the only workable phosphate deposits in Pakistan. The direct application of Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) could be the sole substitution of costly commercial P fertilizers. However, it is of immense value that the optimum levels of water and sulfuric acid required for its dissolution be determined for economical and effective utilization of this non-renewable natural resource. For this purpose, the Rock phosphate (RP) was obtained from Kakul ores of district Hazara and was evaluated for its total P content, solubility and release of P in different volumes of water and H2SO4 in the laboratory of Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. It was found that RP contained > 30 % P2O5 on dry weight basis which realized its suitability for direct application as P fertilizer. Dissolution of HRP in water alone showed a linear relationship with amount of water used for its dissolution up to 1:600 but no significant increase in release of P was observed with further addition of water. Hence it was concluded that 1:600 could be the optimum ratio of HRP and water for maximum possible release of P. The concentrations of P released from HRP with H2SO4 at 1:2, 1:1 and 1:0.5 were not significantly different which suggested that HRP 50% H2SO4 could be the adequate acidulation level for desired P-releases. Though 25% H2SO4 on volume basis (1:0.25) released 21.08% P2O5 from HRP, which was less than that released with 1:0.5, it was still higher than that of single super phosphate (SSP). The recovery of P from HRP lagged markedly behind HPR25% H2SO4 (1:0.25) but was still 20 times more than that released with water alone. Owing to the socio-economic conditions of the poor farmers, it was recommended that HPARP 25% H2SO4 could be the most practical and economical level of acidulation, potent enough to reduce the input cost without compromising on crop yields.

 

MUHAMMAD NASEER, AMJAD KHAN AND NASIM AHMAD 120-125 Download
9
REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED WATER BY ALGAE

A study was conducted to assess industrial wastewater for algae, heavy metals and other elements. For this purpose eighty algal samples and wastewaters were collected from industrial and natural wastewaters mostly in industrial area of Peshawar. The natural and industrial wastewater were analyzed both for algal species and concentration of heavy metals and other elements. The results showed that Aphanocapsa, Closterium, Cosmarium, Fragilaria, Microspora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Nodularia, Oedogonium, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Stauroneis, Ulothrix were the most abundant and common algal species in natural and industrial wastewater samples. Similarly ammonium, phosphorus, chromium, nickel and lead were the most abundant elements in such water samples. These results suggest that the above algal species may be tolerant to high concentration of ammonium, phosphorus, chromium, nickel and lead. The next part of study was that three types of artificial contaminated water were prepared and was inoculated with desired type of algae (mix culture of Euglena oblonga, Oscillatoria formosa and Oscillatoria tenuis). Algae was removed from water through centrifugation after 10 days and was dried, digested and analyzed for heavy metals, ammonium and phosphorous. The results showed that the concentration of all heavy metals and other elements were substantially reduced in the algal inoculated contaminated water. The analysis of algal biomass showed that considerable amount of metals and other elements were recovered in algae. It was observed that the removal of heavy metals, ammonium and phosphorous from contaminated water was substantially greater than its amount recovered in algal biomass. These results suggest that algae have efficiently removed heavy metals, ammonium and phosphorus from contaminated water.

AMJAD KHAN, NASIM AHMAD, SYED IJAZ UL HAQ AND SAJID ALI 126-129 Download

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