ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Current Issue December, 2017 (Published)
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
ISOLATED ROOT SYMBIOTIC FUNGI (RSF) FROM Drynaria quercifolia L. INDUCED TOLERANCE TO SNAP-PEG 8000 MILD DROUGHT STRESS IN PSB RC10 (PAGSANJAN) RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) needs greater amount of water for its growth and metabolism as compared to other agricultural crops making it vulnerable to drought. Previous studies have suggested that symbiotic fungi can be utilized as exogenous producers of radical scavenging metabolites that enhance the adaptive ability of their host plants exposed to various environmental stresses such as drought. The actual stress-adaptive mechanisms of these root symbiotic fungal (RSF) isolates were tested on drought-stressed rice. The results of the study showed that the five RSF isolates have different mechanisms in protecting rice seedlings against drought. However, one RSF isolate stood out. The rice seedlings treated with the unidentified Mucoromycotina isolate, F9P2RSF21, appeared to have the tallest shoots, 100% germination rate, highest seedling vigor index (SVI) and drought tolerance index (DTI) together with the lowest drought susceptibility index (DSI). Statistical data also revealed that this isolate approximated the plant shoot length, germination rate, SVI, DTI and DSI of those rice seedlings grown in nondrought conditions. These drought parameters showed that the unidentified Mucoromycotina isolate, F9P2RSF21, was proved best in combating the far-reaching effects of drought in agriculture. With the apparent consistency in the results pertaining the potential drought stress tolerance capacity of RSF isolates on Drynaria quercifolia, this study may be a potential breakthrough in the field of agriculture and rice research.

JOMAR LOZANO ABAN AND ROLAND MAANO HIPOL 339-349 Download
2
THE TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS OF SIMPLE CARBON AND ORGANIC MATTER ON Ph AND REDOX POTENTIAL OF ACID SULPHATE SOILS

It has been shown recently that addition of dead plant materials as organic matter in acid sulfate soils (ASS) creates microenvironments conducive for soil micobes to reduce the sulfate content and redox potential (Eh), thereby increasing the pH of sulfuric soil and sustaining the pH of sulfidic soil . The time course of effects of the addition of organic matter however was not clearly established. This study showed that the effect of addition of amendments on pH and Eh of ASS is immediate but treatment dependent. Organic matter as a multiple food source for soil microbe was more effective in reducing the soil pH, increasing the pH of the sulfuric soil and sustaining sulfidic alkalinity. The effects of acetate was comparatively higher than glucose, dependent on the type of microbial ecology that were engaged being simple carbon sources.

PATRICK S. MICHAEL 350-359 Download
3
EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROBENZENE ON BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L.) YIELD UNDER GREEN HOUSE CONDITIONS
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is grown extensively throughout the world especially in temperate countries. Poor fruit-set as well as loss of reproductive structures due to moisture stress is one of the major barriers to tropical adaptation of bell pepper. Hence the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene (flowering stimulant and yield booster) on bell pepper yield. The study was conducted at a farmer poly tunnel located in Pilimathalawa (WU1), Sri Lanka. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomize Design (CRD) with four treatments randomized in three replicates. The treatments were T 1 – Control (without Nitrobenzene), T 2 – Nitrobenzene 15%, T 3 – Nitrobenzene 20%, T 4 – Nitrobenzene 25%. Plants were established in drip-fertigated bags in the Poly tunnel and standard crop management practices were applied throughout the study. Nitrobenzene was sprayed to the seedlings 40, 55, 80 and 105 days after planting. Albert solution, 6: 30: 30 fertilizer mixture 20: 20 fertilizer mixture and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 were used as recommended fertilizers. Measurements were taken on flowering, fruit setting, yield as well as the quality of the fruits. The data obtained were tabulated and analysed subjected to the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) was performed to compare the differences among treatment means at p=0.05. The highest number of fruits and flowers plant -1 was observed in T3 and T4, i.e. 20% and 25% Nitrobenzene applied treatments. On the other hand, the lowest number of flowers as well as fruits were recorded from T2 (15% nitrobenzene) and T1 (control of the experiment). Among different treatments tested, 25% nitrobenzene applied plants showed superior results in contrast to other nitrobenzene levels with enhancing flowering, fruit setting, yield quality as well as post-harvest performance under greenhouse conditions.
S. KOHOMBANGE , H. K. L. K. GUNASEKERA AND S. KIRINDIGODA 360-364 Download
4
EFFECT OF SEED DORMANCY BREAKING TREATMENTS ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF FABACEAE FAMILY

Seed germination is important to know the germination pattern of a plant, more particularly the medicinal ones that might need to bring under cultivation for the primary healthcare system. The significance of the seedling in plant population ecology has long been recognized. Fabaceae family includes important medicinal plant. In this family many seeds have thick seed coat and physical dormancy. In this experiment, we chose 6 species of fabaceae family that included Abrus precatorius L., Latyrus cicera, Latyrus sativus, Securigeria securidaca, Trigonella foenigraeicum, Wisteria sinensis. These species grow and reproduce under stress conditions; it was found that the seeds require scarification to germination. Same as other legumes, these seed eco-types have a tough seed coat, which influences germination, and susceptibility to predication. Treatment of breaking dormancy method were included, scarification (by 4 sandpaper number (60, 80, 100, 150 and 220)), Piercing seed coat (by Scalpel) and Sodium hypochlorite treatment. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the percentage of germination and the Mean germination time of these seeds in water and scarification treatments.

MOZHGAN SABET TEIMOURI 365-369 Download
5
DDT AND DDE CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF MEXICAN AMERICANS EXPOSED TO DDT IN MEXICO: THE 1999-2004 NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichloro diphenyltrichloroethane) and it metabolite DDE (dichloro diphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, born in Mexico, were characterized. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N=648, population estimate=7,490,827). While DDT was banned in Mexico during the year 2000, Mexican Americans who were born in Mexico in 2000 or in prior years and later immigrated to the United States (US) were still likely to have elevated DDT during the NHANES 1999-2004 study period. We sought to identify factors associated with p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE concentrations in blood in a population exposed to DDT. The proportion of participants with the isomer p,p’-DDT >0.086 ng/g was highest among women and participants with low acculturation scores, increased with age, and was higher in 1999-2000 than in 2003-2004. In a multiple regression analysis, the concentration of p,p’-DDT was significantly higher among participants who had lived in the US for less than 5 years when compared to those who had been in the US for more than 30 years. Concentrations of p,p’-DDE in blood were also associated with age, survey year, years in the US, and acculturation score in a multiple regression analysis. The decline in DDT and DDE concentrations in blood 3-4 years after the banning of DDT in Mexico in 2000 suggests rapid change is possible once DDT exposure ends. DDT use remains a global public health problem. Economical alternative pesticides are needed before all use of DDT will end.

CHARLES J. EVERETT, OLIVIA M. THOMPSON AND CLARA E. DISMUKE 370-376 Download
6
ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPLE TOLERANCE INDICES FOR SALINITY STRESS IN BARLEY (Hordeum voulgar L.) GENOTYPES AT EARLY GROWTH STAGE

Salinity is one of the major factors reducing plant growth and productivity worldwide, so different strategies have been adopted to overcome this problem of low productivity. Growing of salt tolerant crops is a good option to obtain economical yields from saline areas for which quick method to screen salt tolerant plants, particularly in early stages of their growth is important. For this purpose, a green-house experiment using some tolerance indices i.e., mean productivity, geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index, stress stability index, tolerance index and yield reduction ratio, was performed for assessment of salinity tolerance of barley genotypes and their ability as a better predictor of biomass production under stress and non-stress conditions. According to results, salinity significantly reduced the biomass production of genotypes. The majority of used indices indicated MBS8712, 5Shori, WB7910 and 4 Shori were the best barley genotypes showing the highest stress resistance. This result was similar to those obtained from the analysis of variance and statistical comparison of means of genotypes biomass production. There were positive and strong correlations of genotypes performance in normal and stress condition with STI, MP and GMP in levels of salinity. Thus, this correlation seems to be a useful indicator of tolerant genotypes at this stage especially for these genotypes.

HOSSEIN ASKARI, SEIYED KAMAL KAZEMITABAR ,HAMID NAJAFI ZARRINI AND MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN SABERI 377-384 Download
7
IN VITRO PLANTLET REGENERATION FROM NODAL EXPLANT AND CALLUS INDUCTION OF Vernonia amygdalina DEL

Vernonia amygdalina Del. is a vegetable and medicinal plant used to treat various ailments such as diabetes, malaria, gastrointestinal disorders, and parasitic infections. The present study investigated the effect of supplementing different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) either alone or in combination to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium on in vitro plantlet regeneration of V. amygdalina from nodal explants. Control treatment without plant growth regulators was ideal for in vitro plantlet regeneration of V. amygdalina. In vitro plantlets regenerated from nodal explants supplemented with BAP and/or NAA showed growth abnormalities including chlorosis, basal callus, and excessive adventitious rooting. Callus cultures were induced from leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP, NAA, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combination. Maximum callus induction frequency (100%) was recorded in leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 – 2.0 mg L -1 2,4-D. Fresh weight of calli increased up to 11-fold when treated with 0.5 mg L -1 2,4-D after eight weeks of culture. Key words: Callus, Plantlet regeneration, Vernonia am

CHEN MEI-YIN AND HAMSAWI SANI 385-391 Download
8
BIO-CHEMISTRY OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC CONTAINING MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL

Man-induced global warming is an increase in the world’s temperature caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as the carbon dioxide. The concentrations of GHGs are increasing in the atmosphere and are preventing some of the heat from escaping into the space. Heat-related illnesses and deaths, severe flooding, droughts, and rising sea levels are some of the mentioned negative impacts of global warming. The GHGs are the chemicals that keep heat from sunlight in the atmosphere and near the earth's surface, thereby contributing to global warming. This review focuses on the importance of bioethanol and its production from different lingo-cellulosic materials.

FELEKE KURAZ AND OMPRAKASH SAHU 392-407 Download
9
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS INTENSITY IN COSTAL AND COMPLEX SECTORS IN EGYPT

Man-induced global warming is an increase in the world’s temperature caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as the carbon dioxide. The concentrations of GHGs are increasing in the atmosphere and are preventing some of the heat from escaping into the space. Heat-related illnesses and deaths, severe flooding, droughts, and rising sea levels are some of the mentioned negative impacts of global warming. The GHGs are the chemicals that keep heat from sunlight in the atmosphere and near the earth's surface, thereby contributing to global warming. This review focuses on the importance of bioethanol and its production from different lingo-cellulosic materials.

YASSER H. IBRAHIM, INAS A. SALEH, ATEF M.F. MOHAMMED 408-418 Download
10
LAND USE PATTERN AND ITS IMPLICATION ON HYDROLOGY, CLIMATE AND DEGRADATION IN ETHIOPIA; A REVIEW

Land cover refers to the physical and biological cover over the surface of the land and it is a term used for the human modification of the earth terrestrial surface. In Ethiopia studies on land use land cover pattern and its effect was done at watershed and catchment level only. There is argument on land use land cover pattern in Ethiopia. Some researchers reported vegetation coverage was improved due to afforestation and plantation programme, while many others came up with the result of vegetation coverage was reduced in expense of agricultural land and settlement/build up area expansion. Surface runoff and evapotranspiration were affected by reduction of vegetation coverage which affects catchment hydrological cycle (increase wet river flow and decrease dry river flow).Land use land cover dynamics was reported both as causal and effect, and deforestation was the main cause of climate change in Ethiopia and also vegetation cover removal was stated as the major cause of land degradation and soil erosion which affects land productivity. More detailed study on land use land cover dynamic pattern and its effect on ecosystem at national or basin level to decide and give direction for policy makers whether it is increased or decreased when compared to before 2 or 3 decades is recommended. Also to alter the negative impact of land use land cover change on hydrological response, land degradation, soil erosion and climate change protecting existing vegetation coverage is mandatory in addition to new plantation programmes.

GIZAW TESFAYE 418-426 Download
11
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE CULTIVARS

An experiment with objective to check the influence of organic manure on growth and yield of lettuce cultivars was conducted at Ornamental Nursery, Horticulture section, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 201415. Experiment was comprised of organic manure (farmyard manure and poultry manure) and lettuce cultivars (local and Chinese cultivar) carried out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement having three replications. Most of the study attributes of lettuce were significantly influenced by lettuce cultivars and organic manure alone or combination .Chinese cultivar produce maximum number of leaves plant -1 (24.11), leaf area (124.79cm 2 ), plant height (33.22cm) and total yield (2.36t.ha -1 ) as compare to local cultivar. Similarly maximum number of leaves plant 1 (19.5), plant height (26.66cm), total chlorophyll content (0.0062mgcm -2 ) and total yield (4.16t.ha -1 ) was recorded in lettuce plant treated with poultry manure (10t.ha -1 ). The higher leaf area (145.6cm 2 ), number of leaves plant -1 (26), total chlorophyll (0.0272mgcm -2 ) and total yield (4.66t.ha -1 ) was obtained for Chinese cultivar under poultry manure application at rate of 10 t.ha -1 . On the basis of above results, it is concluded that Chinese cultivar supplied with poultry manure give maximum growth and yield of lettuce in agro climatic conditions of Peshawar Valley.

IZHAR ULLAH , JAVEED RAHMAN , SAJID KHAN IMRAN AHMAD, NOOR UL AMIN, MUHAMMAD SAJID , NOOR HABIB, MEHBOOB ALAM, SHAH FAISAL, FAZAL-E-AHAD 423-438 Download
12
THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT VARIETIES

An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of phosphorus management on yield and yield components of wheat varieties at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during winter season 20152016. The treatments were consisted of four wheat varieties (Pirsabak-2013, Siran-2010, Faisalabad-2008 and Atta Habib) and six phosphorus ratios of rock phosphate with diammonium phosphate (Control, 100% P from RP, 75% P from RP + 25% P from DAP, 50% P from RP + 50% P from DAP, 25% P from RP + 75% P from DAP, 100% P from DAP). Experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replication and 3 m x 2.4 m plot size was used which included 8 rows, where 30 cm space was maintained within rows. Results indicated that phosphorus ratios significantly affected growth and yield components of wheat varieties except days to emergence and emergence m -2 . Among different phosphorus ratios, 100% DAP decreased days to physiological maturity (158) and enhanced tiller m -2 (295), leaf area tiller -1 (119.8 cm 2 ), leaf area index (3.54), plant height (106.73 cm) and biological yield (9803 kg ha -1 ). Earlier heading (114 days) and taller plants were resulted from 25% P from RP + 75% P from DAP. Among different wheat varieties Pirsabak-2013 produced more tiller m -2 (281), leaf area tiller -1 (113.8 cm -2 ), leaf area index (3.21), plant height (102.17 cm) and biological yield (9361 kg ha -1 ), while early days to heading (117) and maturity (157) and taller plants (102.17 cm) were observed in Siran-2010. It is concluded that Pirsabak-2013 with application of 100% P from DAP can improve wheat productivity in the study area.

SHAZMA ANWAR , MUHAMMAD FARAZ, SAID MUNIR , MUHAMMAD ISLAM AND ASIM MUHAMMAD 427-432 Download
13
GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT PLUM VARIETIES ON PEACH ROOTSTOCK IN THE NURSERY UNDER THE AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF DISTRICT SWAT

An experiment on the “Growth behavior of different plum varieties on peach rootstock in the nursery under the agro climatic conditions of district Swat” was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Mingora Swat. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Six plum varieties (AU- Producer, Ruby Red, Stanley, Red Beaute, Fazli Manani and D-Agen) were budded as scion varieties on one year old peach rootstocks (Swat Local). The experimental results showed that significant differences were found in various plum cultivars budded on peach rootstock . Early sprouting (14.66 days), maximum bud take success (89.60%), number of leaves (122.14), shoot thickness (5.55 mm) and number of branches (4.86) was noted in variety, AU- Producer budded on swat local peach rootstock. Maximum budling growth (85.19 cm) was recorded in Red Beaute. AU- Producer and Red Beaute are recommended for June budding as these varieties attained salable buddling growth during one growing season while rest of the varieties could be recommended for dormant budding because these varieties require two growing seasons to attain salable size.

FAZAL RABI, MUHAMMAD SAJID , KHALIL UR RAHMAN , NADIA BOSTAN AND JAVED RAHMAN 439-443 Download
14
IN VITRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF ALTERNARIA SP, THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT OF BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L)

An in vitro study was conducted to determine the efficacy of different concentrations (0, 500 and 1000 ppm) of Dithane M-45 against six different isolates of Alternaria sp, the cause of leaf spot of bitter gourd, in the Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2010. The experiment was conducted by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The responses of six different isolates (Yaseen Abad, Nasirpur, Taimalpura, Jabba Daudzai, Zakhi Miana and Ghari Momin) of Alternaria sp against different concentrations of Dithan M-45 were significantly different from one another. After 10 days of incubation at 250C, Dithane M-45 @ 1000 ppm greatly (66.3%) affected the mycelia growth of Taimalpura isolate of Alternaria sp. Moreover, Yaseen Abad isolate showed partial resistance at that concentration of Dithane M-45, which inhibited the mycelia growth by 41.4% as compared to check.

HAKIM KHAN, JAWAD UR REHMAN AND MARIA 444-448 Download

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