ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2018 , Volume  4, Issue 1 (Published)
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1
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA
MUSLIM QADIR, XUECHUN WANG, ABDUL HAMEED BALOCH, YUNGAO HU, FAHD RASUL, GUOTAO YANG, SHAIKH ABDULLAH AND FATEH MUHAMMAD

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA
ABSTRACT:

Human investment and environmental changes exhibit great impacts on winter wheat production. In present paper winter wheat yield adjusted into environment yield and investment yield, to evaluate the effects of environment and investment on winter wheat production on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed the mean value of environment yield at period IV was 851 kg/hm2, with the RE value of 25.6% and during the last 57 years the impacts of environment change on winter wheat yield were negligible. However, the climate changes, particularly fluctuations in the precipitation cycle caused the variation in winter wheat yield/year. In addition the investment yield of winter wheat at period IV was 2663 kg/hm2, with the RI value of 74.4%. Therefore, it is inferred that investment was one of the main reasons which increased winter wheat yield from 1965 to 2014 on the Loess Plateau of China; while RI values were lower during prolonged drought seasons. Consequently we conclude that the impacts of investment on winter wheat yield were limited by the environmental factors especially by rainfall on the Loess Plateau of China.
 

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2
EFFECT OF WATERLOGGING STRESS AT SEEDLING STAGE ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF RICE VARIETIES
TANIA SULTANA, KAMAL UDDIN AHAMED, NAZMUN NAHER, MUHAMMAD SHARIFUL ISLAM AND MUHAMMAD SHAHARIAR JAMAN

EFFECT OF WATERLOGGING STRESS AT SEEDLING STAGE ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF RICE VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted during June to December, 2013 to study the effect of submergence at seedling stage  on  some  of  the  morphological  attributes  and  yield  of  some  Transplanting  aman  rice  varieties.    Four submergence duration, viz., control (no submergence), six days submergence, ten days submergence and fourteen days submergence and six varieties, viz., BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan34. BRRI hybrid dhan1, BRRI hybrid dhan2, ACI hybrid1 were used for this experiment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. All parameters were significantly affected by the  submergence  duration.  The  cultivars  also  significantly  varied  for  the  studied  traits.  The  tallest  plant  was recorded from fourteen days submergence treatment. The highest number grains panicle-1 and 1000-grain weight were achieved in BRRI dhan51. The highest grain yield (8.50 t ha-1) was achieved from no submergence in BRRI hybrid  dhan1  while  the  lowest  yield  (1.20  t  ha-1)  was  recorded  when  cultivar  BRRI  dhan-34  submerged  for fourteen days. The test genotypes showed wide variation in yield reduction percent comparison with control at different submergence duration. The rice cultivar BRRI dhan51 followed by BRRI hybrid dhan1 showed higher submergence tolerance and thus proved as tolerant varieties. On the other hand, BRRI dhan34 and ACI hybrid1 were susceptible to submergence.

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3
RESPONSE OF COATING OF EDIBLE OIL AND STORAGE DURATION ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF PEAR CV. LECONTE
KAMRAN SHAH, IMRAN AHMAD, HAN MINGYU, XING LIBO, SUMAYYA SHAH, ABDUR RAB, GULSHAN ARA and UMAIRA SHAHID

RESPONSE OF COATING OF EDIBLE OIL AND STORAGE DURATION ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY ATTRIBUTES OF PEAR CV. LECONTE
ABSTRACT:

A research on “Response of coating of edible oil and storage duration on the post-harvest quality attributes of pear cv. Leconte” was performed. The design of experiment used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors and replicated three times. Edible oils i.e. Olive oil, Sunflower oil, Canola oil with control while storage durations i-e. 0 day, 8 day, 16 day, 24 day and 32 day were kept in the experiment. A significant result was observed regarding all the quality attributes of pear fruit with the application of edible oils coating and storage durations and their interaction was also recorded significant. Olive oil treated fruits showed the optimal results, maintained the pH of fruit juice (4.34), TSS (15.77 0Brix), titratable acidity (0.31%), ascorbic acid (8.39 mg.100g-1), fruit firmness (3.76 kg.cm-2) and juice content (64.97%). Among storage duration, extreme titratable acidity (0.37%), ascorbic acid (9.65mg.100g-1), fruit firmness (4.39kg.cm-2) and juice content (83.08%) was observed in 0 day of storage. The maximum fruit juice pH (5.06), TSS (23.230Brix) and weight loss (6.38%) was noted in 32 days of storage. Interactions between coating materials and storage durations also significantly influenced the quality parameters. Maximum pH of fruit juice (5.26), TSS (26.320Brix) and weight loss (7.76%) was noted in control pears at 32 day of storage. On the basis of findings it is recommended that pear fruits should be treated with olive oil and can be kept for 32 days for the improved quality and prolonged shelf life.

 

 

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4
PHENOLOGY, GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY ROW SPACING AND NITROGEN PLACEMENT METHODS
ZAID KHAN1, MUHAMMAD AYOUB KHAN, SAJJAD AHMAD, HAFEEZ UR RAHIM, BARKAT ALI, NAWAB KHAN AND BILAL AHMAD

PHENOLOGY, GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY ROW SPACING AND NITROGEN PLACEMENT METHODS
ABSTRACT:

An experiment entitled “Phenology, growth and yield characteristics of maize as affected by row spacing and nitrogen placement methods'' was conducted at Research Farm of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during kharif 2015. Randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements (RCBD split plot) having four replications were used. Row spacing (45, 55, 65 and 75 cm) were allotted to main plots while nitrogen placement methods (control, single side of the row, between the rows and both sides of the row,) were assigned to sub plots. Maximum days to 50% flowering (54.8) and days to 50% tasseling (62.5) were recorded for 45 cm row spacing while higher ear weight at maturity (76.4 g) and more number of grains ear-1 (376.4) were recorded for 75 cm row spacing and grain yield (2226.2 kg ha-1) was obtained from row spacing of 65 cm row spacing. Similarly, more number of days to 50 % silking (63.6), higher ear weight at maturity (77.4 g), more number of grains row-1(339.4) and higher grain yield (2184.9 kg ha-1) was recorded from nitrogen placement to both sides of the row. All the interactions (RS×NP) were found non-significant for all the parameters. It is concluded that maize preferably sown at 65 cm row spacing with nitrogen applied to both sides of the rows method to get maximum yield.

 

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5
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT pH LEVELS ON THE IN VITRO MYCELIA GROWTH OF ALTERNARIA SP, THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L)
HAKIM KHAN, MUHID KHAN AND MARIA

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT pH LEVELS ON THE IN VITRO MYCELIA GROWTH OF ALTERNARIA SP, THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L)
ABSTRACT:

 

An in vitro study was conducted to check the mycelia growth of different isolates of Alternaria sp on different pH levels (Normal, 6.0 and 8.0) in the Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2010 growing season of the crop. Alternaria sp from all the six isolates was cultured aseptically. The experiment was conducted by using three factors Completely Randomized (CR) design. The responses of all the six isolates (Chamkani, Nasirur, Taimalpura, Jabba Daudzai, Zakhi Miana and Garhi Momin) of Alternaria sp were significantly different at various pH (normal, 6.0 and 8.0) levels. Data were recorded after five and ten days of incubation at 250C. The mycelia growth of all the six isolates were maximum at normal pH of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium as compared to 6.0 and 8.0. Locations also affected the response of Alternaria sp to different pH levels.

 

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6
ECOLOGICAL AND TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ROOT ANATOMY IN SOME SPECIES AND CULTIVARS OF GENUS CANNA L.
HINA KANWAL, MANSOOR HAMEED, NOREEN AKHTER, AISHA ILYAS, AMMARA MAHMOOD AND NIGHAT NOREEN

ECOLOGICAL AND TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ROOT ANATOMY IN SOME SPECIES AND CULTIVARS OF GENUS CANNA L.
ABSTRACT:

Survival potential of different plant species in varying habitats depend upon their morpho-physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics in that specific environment. Diversity in tissue architecture of any plant species is a promising feature in response to various environmental conditions. The present study was aimed to assess structural modifications in root of the seventeen species/cultivars of Canna L. (family Cannaceae) in relation to their wide distribution and cultivation in different habitats. Seventeen species/cultivars of Canna L. were collected from varying habitats of Faisalabad and its adjoining districts (Punjab, Pakistan). Free hand sectioning and light microscopy technique was used to prepare the double stained permanent slides for the study of different structural modifications of root in relation to variety of environmental conditions. Overall, on the basis of root anatomical studies, the wide distribution of various Canna species/cultivars can be attributed to their thicker root epidermis, large cortical cells, greater metaxylem area, smaller vessels and highest aerenchyma area and large pith area.
 

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7
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN ON ONION (Allium cepa L) UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITION OF PESHAWAR
MUHAMMAD ZAKIRULLAH, NUMAN ALI,TARIQ JAN, SYED HARIS AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD YOUNAS

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN ON ONION (Allium cepa L) UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITION OF PESHAWAR
ABSTRACT:

The response of onion (Allium cepa L) to different level of nitrogen was studied in Peshawar at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab during 2015-2016. Nitrogen levels under trial were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg per hectare. The statistical analysis revealed that different nitrogen levels significantly affected all the growth parameters studied. Maximum leaf length (54.48 cm), plant height (56.33 cm), average bulb weight (78.44 g), average bulb diameter (4.5cm), yield (14,000 kgha-1) was recorded in plots fertilized with nitrogen @ 150 kgha-1, whereas the average maximum number of leaves (6.93) were noted in plots that has received nitrogen @  100 kgha-1. It is concluded from the study that nitrogen @ 150 kgha-1 should be used for higher productivity of onion under agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

 

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8
PHOSTROGEN; AS AN EFFECTIVE PLANT FOOD FOR OPTIMUM VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans L.) UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF D.I. KHAN-PAKISTAN
SHAH ZAREEN, MUHAMMAD NISAR, SHAHZADA KHAN, AKHTAR ALI, IJAZ AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD HAROON

PHOSTROGEN; AS AN EFFECTIVE PLANT FOOD FOR OPTIMUM VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans L.) UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF D.I. KHAN-PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

A pots / containers study was organized during summer 2016 to determine the effect of Phostrogen levels on Zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.) dreamland to improve its vegetative and reproductive characteristics. The study was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) one factor with five treatments {T1 = 0 (Control for comparison), T2 = 50, T3 = 150, T4 = 250, and T5 = 350 ml liter-1} of Phostrogen levels and was replicated three times. The plant food (Phostrogen) was applied to the plants after 15 days of transplanting in the form of foliar spray. All the applied Phostrogen levels have significant effects on the Zinnia plant studied parameters. The obtained data of Zinnia plant vegetative growth and floral characteristic revealed, the outmost plant height (24.50 cm), leaves Plant-1 (73.30), branches Plant-1 (12.03) and blooming period (22.33) were noted at treated with 350 ml and then 250 ml of Phostrogen application. While, the plant height (17.40 cm), leaves Plant-1 (47.23), branches Plant-1 (4.47) and blooming period (16.27) were lowest observe in control followed by 50 ml application. In case of flower plant-1 and flower size in diameter were maximum founded at 150 ml followed by 50 ml of Phostrogen level whereas, minimum results noted when plants were treated with 350 ml of Phostrogen application and control. So, from the experimental study it is concluded, that the moderate levels of Phostrogen should adopt for maximum floral characters and high levels for getting good vegetative characters in Zinnia under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan.

 

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9
YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT AS INFLUENCED BY VARIOUS TILLAGE OPERATIONS AND SEED RATES
SAJJAD AHMAD, MUHAMMAD SHAFI, INAMULLAH, HAFEEZ UR RAHIM, ZAID KHAN, MUHAMMAD AYOUB KHAN, LAIQ ZADA AND USMAN

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT AS INFLUENCED BY VARIOUS TILLAGE OPERATIONS AND SEED RATES
ABSTRACT:

Various tillage operation and seed rate could be operated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth. Thereby enhancing WUE, Sunlight, soil available nutrients and yield of wheat on sustainable basis. To evaluate response of wheat yield and yield components to different tillage practices (i.e. 3 Times Chisel Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (40cms), 3 Times Mould Board Plough +2 Times Rotavator (30cms), 2 Times Disc harrow + 2 Times Rotavator (20cms),1 Time Cultivator + 1 Time Rotavator (10cms) and seed rates (i.e. 70, 85,100,115,130,145,160,175 kg ha-1). The research experiment was conducted in randomized complete block Design with split plot arrangement with three replications at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2014-2015. Significant effect of different tillage practices on spike weight, grains spike-1, biological and grain yield were recorded. Highest spike weight (2.92 g), grains spike-1(41), grain yield (3418 kg ha-1), were recorded from treatment of Two Time Disc Harrow + Two Time Cultivator (20 cm). Highest biological yield (10141 kg ha-1) was observed from 3 Times Mould Board Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (30cms). Maximum weeds dry weight m2 (32.8 g) was recorded with tillage practices 3 Chisel Plough+2 Rotavator (40 cm). Seed rates also showed significant effect on spike weight, grains weight spike-1, grains per spike, weeds dry weight m-2, grain yield and biological yield. Maximum spike weight (2.88 g),grains weight spike-1(1.26 g), grains per spike (42), grain yield(3573 kg ha-1),were observed with seed rate of 115 kg ha-1. Highest biological yield (10348 kg ha-1) were recorded from seed rate 175 kg ha-1. Maximum weeds dry weight m-2 (30.8 g) was observed with seed rate 70 kg ha-1. It is concluded that tillage practices 2 Times Disc harrow + 2 Times Rotavator (20cms) and seed rate of 115kg ha-1 produced maximum yield of wheat
 

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10
INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM LEVELS ON GLADIOLUS CORMS PRODUCTION IN OPEN FIELD AND INTERCROPPING CONDITIONS
FAROOQ1, ASHFAQ ALAM2, NOOR UL AMIN2, WASIM BILAL1, MOHAMMAD ABDUL RAUF, KHALIL UR RAHMAN, ROSHAN ALI, MUHAMMAD IBRAHI, JAVED RAHMAN, MUHAMMAD SHAHID AND NADIA BOSTAN

INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM LEVELS ON GLADIOLUS CORMS PRODUCTION IN OPEN FIELD AND INTERCROPPING CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:

The influence of potassium levels on gladiolus corm (Gladiolus grandiflorus) production under two growing conditions were studied at Agriculture Research Institute, Mingora Swat. The two growing conditions (open field and intercropping) and potassium levels (0, 30, 60 and 90) were studied during the experiment. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Light intensity and soil humidity were also recorded in both conditions. Data was recorded on various growth attributes, which showed that both growing conditions and potassium levels had significantly affected most of the attributes. The maximum sprouting percentage (93.7%), diameter of corms (5.3 cm), corms weight (69.9 g), number of cormels plant-1 (19.0) and survival percentage (88.8%) were recorded in open field, while maximum plant height (120.2 cm) was observed in intercropping. Moreover, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (6.5), plant height (120.4 cm), diameter of corms (4.3 cm), corms weight (47.9 g), number of cormels plant-1 (16.9) and survival percentage (88.8%) were recorded in plots applied with 90 kg potassium ha-1. Hence, it was concluded that gladiolus could be grown in open field condition with application of potassium @ 90 kg ha-1 for better growth and production of corms under the agro-climatic conditions of Swat valley.
 

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11
BIOCHAR: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND SOIL QUALITY IN SEMIARID AGRICULTURE
MUHAMMAD RIAZ, MUHAMMAD SALEEM ARIF AND QAISER HUSSAIN

BIOCHAR: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND SOIL QUALITY IN SEMIARID AGRICULTURE
ABSTRACT:

Biochar is a carbon (C) rich material produced from pyrolysis of biomass under no or limited supply of oxygen, resistant to decomposition due to recalcitrant nature and encourages long-term C sequestration in agroecosystems. Biochar can be produced from a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from crop residues, wood chips and organic waste. Physico-chemical characteristics of biochar amendments strongly depend on the pyrolysis temperature and duration. Application of biochar to soil offers numerous benefits to soil-plant systems by improving soil nutrient retention, increasing soil water holding capacities, reducing soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions, sustaining soil microbial activity, and ultimately enhancing soil fertility and plant productivity. Soils in arid and semiarid regions including Pakistan contain low C contents and high temperature, low rainfall and no external soil organic C (SOC) inputs further restricts SOC buildup. Interactions of biochar with native and fresh organic matter determines C sequestration potential since biochar can increase or decrease organic matter decomposition by inducing positive or negative priming effects respectively. A number of studies performed in arid and semi-arid regions of the world demonstrated the additive effects of biochar on soil-plant systems. However, challenges of multiple origin exist to further explore the biochar potential in low SOC soils.
 

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