ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2017 , Volume  3, Issue 3 (Published)
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1
ASSESSMENT OF MACRO-INVERTEBRATES BIODIVERSITY AND PLANT SPECIES IN A RIPARIAN ZONE OF TAGUIBO WATERSHED, BUTUAN CITY, PHILIPPINES
JULIE S. BERAME

ASSESSMENT OF MACRO-INVERTEBRATES BIODIVERSITY AND PLANT SPECIES IN A RIPARIAN ZONE OF TAGUIBO WATERSHED, BUTUAN CITY, PHILIPPINES
ABSTRACT:
This aimed to assess and identify the abundance of macro-invertebrates and plant species diversity in the riparian zone of Taguibo Watershed, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The study used quadrat method that was set in the area. Purposive method was used in the collection of data. Results showed that the macro-invertebrates found in the riparian zone were ants, flies, Japanesse shells, millipede, damselfly, earthworm, centipede, butterfly and dragonfly. For the plants, hagonoi (Wedeliabiflora Linn.) plant has the number distribution (1,520) with an average of 152 and a relative abundance of 31.56. The least species of plant is banana (Musa sapientum I. Var.) and papaya (Carica papaya) plant (1) species with an average of 0.1 and a relative abundance of 0.2. The abundance of the identified species was referred to the RED List of threatened species.

260-265 Download
2
CROPSYST SIMULATION AND RESPONSE OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS TO LATE SEASON DROUGHT
MOSTAFA MORSY, GAMAL EL AFANDI, EMAN NAIF

CROPSYST SIMULATION AND RESPONSE OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS TO LATE SEASON DROUGHT
ABSTRACT:
Drought has a significant impact on crop growth and production, especially wheat as one of the world major crops. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of different irrigation treatments on wheat grain yield and calibrate CropSyst model to simulate wheat under normal and deficit irrigation. The field experiment was carried out during 2010/2011 wheat growing season at El-Beheira, Egypt. Two irrigation treatments were applied: normal (full irrigation) and deficit (late season drought). Results indicated that, the deficit irrigation has a trivial (significant) impact on anthesis (physiological maturity) days and their corresponding Growing Degree Days (GDD) for all wheat cultivars. Under the deficit irrigation conditions, the maximum decreasing in wheat grain yield were recorded for Sakhs93, Sakha61, and Sakha94 by 63.85, 56.14, and 50.84 % respectively. While, the minimum decreasing in wheat grain yield were observed for Gemmiza9, Gemmiza7, Sids1, Gemmiza10 and Giza168 with 37.73, 33.12, 30.55, 26.56 and 24.40 % respectively. It is obvious that, the last cultivars are more tolerant to water deficit than Sakha cultivars. Henceforth, it is highly recommended to be cultivated under water scarcity conditions. The calibration of CropSyst revealed that, the Model Percentage Error ranged from -0.139 to 0.222 % and 0.282 to 0.068% for normal and deficit irrigation respectively. As well as, the values of Normalized Root Mean Square Error and Normalized Mean Bias were 0.030-0.192 %, and 0.147-0.104 % respectively. These results prove that, the CropSyst gives a reasonable prediction for wheat grain yields under normal and deficit irrigation.

266-274 Download
3
EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON TOMATO Cv. BAMBINO
FARZANA BEGUM, NEELAM ARA, GOHAR AYUB, MOHAMMAD ILYAS, NAGINA ZEB, AMMARA SAEED AND AZMAT ALI AWAN

EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON TOMATO Cv. BAMBINO
ABSTRACT:
Drought stress is one of the most important yield contributing factor. An experiment was conductedat Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture Peshawar to study the effect of drought stress on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum ) Cv. Bambino.” an experiment was conducted Tomato plants were exposed to two different water conditions (i) Control (normal water availability) and stressed conditions in a green house of 18 x20 meter size. During the course of experiment, data were recorded on relative water content (%), proline content (µmoles) and relative growth rate (gm). It was found that the relative water content of plant body decline during drought due to less water availability. In controlled environment, the mean value of relative water content was 89.28 % while that observed in drought condition was 87.73 %. Proline concentration increased due to continuous decrease in water quantity in cell sap. The value of proline content was 4.4 µmoles g? 1 fresh weight in controlled condition whereas that the plants in drought condition had 5.8 µmoles g? 1 fresh weight. In controlled condition the relative growth rate week? 1 on fresh weight was 1.37gm whereas that of plant in drought condition was 0.57gm.

275-278 Download
4
OPTIMIZATION OF BREAD BAKING CONDITIONS IN SUPER HEATED STEAM OVEN USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
RASHA MUSA OSMAN, TAJUL ARIS YANG, ABDEL HALIM RAHAMA AHMED, KHOGALI ELNUR AHMED, MUDAWI HASSAN ALI, SAIFELDIN MOHAMED KHAIR

OPTIMIZATION OF BREAD BAKING CONDITIONS IN SUPER HEATED STEAM OVEN USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
ABSTRACT:
The objective of the study was to optimize the bread baking condition in superheated steam oven. Independent variables were the baking time (20, 25, and 30 min) and the baking temperature (180, 200 and 220°C). The bread quality parameter including moisture content, color and texture properties were measured. The response surface methodology was used for the optimization. The effect of baking condition on the parameters of bread were investigated using second- order central composite design. Baking temperature and time significantly affect moisture content and color of bread. Numerical optimization and superimposed contour plots suggested the optimum baking condition of bread to be 180 °C (temperature) and 20.77 minutes (time). The optimum moisture content, L* and hardness value are predicted to be 38.52 %, 76.24 and 13.26 N of the baked bread respectively. Baking bread in these conditions produce high quality bread in terms of moisture content, color and texture properties

279-291 Download
5
EVALUATION OF CANOLA GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN REGIMES FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
MUHAMMAD TAUSEEF, SHAHID IQBAL, MUHAMMAD SALEEM, FAZAL MUNSIF, UMAR FAROOQ, KHAISTA REHMAN, MUHAMMAD ZAHID AND NASRULLAH

EVALUATION OF CANOLA GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN REGIMES FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
ABSTRACT:
Low canola yield is a common problem in Pakistan. In this context, introduction of improved varieties and suitable fertilization methods may offer a solution. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to assess the yield response of canola genotypes to different nitrogen regimes. The experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots having three replications. Two canola varieties, Zahoor and PARC were randomized in main plots while two nitrogen (N) application methods, soil and foliar with an unamended control were randomized in sub plots. The seeds were sown on 28 th November. The yield was statistically different across the varieties and N application methods. Zahoor than PARC produced maximum biological yield (4676.9 kg ha -1 ) and seed yield (1520.1 kg ha -1 ). Whilst soil application of N was superior to foliar application for biological yield (5443.1 kg ha -1 ) and seed yield (1613.4 kg ha -1 ). However, interactions between varieties and N application methods had also significant effects on the yields. The soil N application to the both varieties gave the maximum yields. Therefore, it is concluded that the soil application of N to the varieties, Zahoor and PARC could be more effective to maximize yield under agro ecological conditions of Mardan.

292-297 Download
6
EFFECT OF SLOPE POSITIONS ON SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY DISTRICT BUNER
IBADULLAH , FARMANULLAH, SAJID ALI, MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM , NAWAB ALI , IMRAN KHAN , KASHIF KHAN , ADNAN ANWAR KHAN , IMRAN AZEEM, SARA AND TASNEEM SHAH

EFFECT OF SLOPE POSITIONS ON SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY DISTRICT BUNER
ABSTRACT:
The research work was conducted in Chagharzai valley of District Buner to determine the effect of slope positions on soil physico-chemical properties and micronutrients. Samples were collected from top-slope, midslope, and bottom-slope at two depths 0-15 and 15-30 cm. The results showed that there were significant differences among the physico-chemical properties and micronutrients of top-slope, mid-slope and bottom-slope positions. Almost all the soil samples had acidic pH and were non-saline (EC <4dSm-1) in both surface and subsurface soil. Top slope had higher bulk density (1.60 g cm -3 ) than both Mid-slope (1.58 g cm -3 ) and Bottom-slope (1.53 g cm -3 ). Bottom-slope had high electrical conductivity (0.077 dSm -1 ), phosphorus (12.5 mg kg -1 ), potassium (76.85 mg kg -1 ), organic matter (2.13%), zinc (1.01 mg kg -1 ), iron (4.55 mg kg -1 ), manganese (3.23 mg kg -1 ), copper (1 mg kg -1 ) and clay (12.34%), while Top-slope had the lowest. Surface soil was significantly different from sub-surface soil in almost all physico-chemical properties and micronutrients. Sub-surface soil had the highest bulk density (1.57 g cm -3 ) and lower electrical conductivity (0.043 dSm -1 ). Surface soil had higher phosphorus (15.75 mg kg -1 ), potassium (80 mg kg -1 ), organic matter (1.12%), copper (0.98 mg kg -1 ), zinc (0.91 mg kg -1 ) and silt (21%) than sub-surface soil. There were difference in soil physico-chemical properties and micronutrients of the three slope positions. From the study, it has been concluded that the position of slope affected soil properties and fertility of sloping land. To control these adverse effects of slope conservation measures needs to be adopted such as afforestation, contouring, terracing, and selection of suitable crops for these sloping land.

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7
THE ROLE OF PRIVATE TOBACCO COMPANIES IN PROMOTION OF TOBACCO CROP AT MALAKAND DIVISION, PAKISTAN
BILAL AHMAD, BADAR NASEEM SIDDIQUI AND FAHEEM KHAN

THE ROLE OF PRIVATE TOBACCO COMPANIES IN PROMOTION OF TOBACCO CROP AT MALAKAND DIVISION, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Tobacco is one of the main cash crops of Pakistan. Certainly, the growers cultivate this crop for economic stability. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the role of private tobacco companies in promotion of tobacco crop at Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Multi-stage sampling technique applied for selection of the sample. Thus, total 135 tobacco growers were selected for this study by the appropriate methods. Meanwhile, the results reveal that maximum 82.96, 72.59, 85.18 and 65.18% tobacco growers were young and middle age (up to 50 years), educated up to bachelor degree, well-experience of farming practices up to 20-30 years and small size up to 2.5 acres respectively. Moreover, mostly 85.18, 85.18, 75.55 and 68.14% tobacco growers had provided facilities related seeds, nursery establishment, fertilizers and pesticides application respectively by private tobacco companies. Further, the response of tobacco growers recorded that seed facilities were excellent and good. While other remaining facilities (nursery establishment, fertilizer and pesticides applications, sticks, farm yard manure, wood, transportation, baskets and bags and heating pipes) were poor and fair. Additionally, maximum 98.51% tobacco growers reported that they achieved related and required information by communication tools pamphlets and posters. Beside these communication tools, almost all tobacco growers informed that mobile is a suitable communication tool for sharing new information. The present study concludes that majority tobacco growers were facing mainly issues related quality seed, fertilizers, and pesticides application and nursery establishment. Meanwhile, it is recommended that private tobacco companies and other concern organization had better provide the latest information, and appropriate facilities and services to tobacco growers related seeds, fertilizers and pesticides application, and nursery development by extension methods and approaches like field demonstration, field trip, model farm service and farmer field school.

304-311 Download
8
EFFECT OF MARBLE MINES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN DISTRICT BUNER
SAJID ALI, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN KHATTAK, ROSHAN ALI, IBADULLAH, NISAR AHMAD, NAWAB ALI AND MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM

EFFECT OF MARBLE MINES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN DISTRICT BUNER
ABSTRACT:
The research was conducted in Bampokha District Buner to determine the effect of marble mining on soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from adjacent, 100 m and 200 m away from the marble mines at two depths 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. The results showed significant difference in surface and subsurface soil properties. Twenty three percent samples were loamy sand, 66 loam, 7 silt loam and 4 were sandy loam in texture. Almost all soil samples had alkaline pH (pH>7) and were non-saline in nature (EC <4 dSm-1) in both surface and subsurface soil. Surface soil have relatively higher pH (7.88), electrical conductivity (0.10 dsm -1 ), lime content (21.3%), organic matter (2.42%), total nitrogen (0.48%), AB-DTPA Ext.K (52.4 mg kg -1 ) and P (0.35 mg kg -1 ) than subsurface soil. Mean values of pH were high in soil at a distance of 200 m (8.1) as compared to adjacent (7.55) and 100 m (7.87) away soil. Electrical conductivity was high in adjacent soil (0.11dSm -1 ) as compared to 100 m (0.089 dSm -1 ) and 200 m away soil (0.095dSm -1 ). Lime content was high in soil at a distance of 200 m away soil (23.8%) than 100 m away soil (22.05 %) and adjacent soil (16.7 %). Similarly, K was high in soil at a distance of 200 m (60.4 mg kg -1 ) away from mine than 100 m away soil (48 mg kg -1 ) and adjacent soil (44.2 mg kg -1 ). Adjacent soil had high organic matter (3.32 %), P (60.4 mg kg -1 ), total nitrogen (0.66 mg kg -1 ) as compared to 100 m and 200 m away soil, respectively.

312-318 Download
9
ASSESSMENT OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION IN F2 POPULATIONS OF WHEAT
Touheed Iqbal, Ghulam Hassan and Iqbal Hussain

ASSESSMENT OF YIELD COMPONENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION IN F2 POPULATIONS OF WHEAT
ABSTRACT:
Keeping in view the role of wheat in Pakistan, the current research was conducted to compute the extent of transmissibility and to derive information on the correlation of grain yield with its component traits. Sixteen F 2 populations of wheat and their eight parental lines were evaluated at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan during wheat season of 2013-14. Experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Analysis of variance manifested significant differences among genotypes for all the studied traits. Similarly, mean squares due to parents, F 2 populations and parents vs. F 2 `s were also significant for all the traits under study except harvest index. On the basis of mean performance, maximum grain yield plant -1 among parents was given by Fakhr-eSarhad (27.16 g) and PS-05 (26.06 g), while among F 2 populations, maximum grain yield plant 1 was given by cross combinations Barsat / Siren (27.93 g), AUP-5008 / Siren (26.09 g) and Tatara / PS-05 (25.65 g). The assessments of heritability and genetic advance manifested that F 2 populations, Saleem-2K / Janbaz, Tatara / F.S, AUP-5008 / PS-05 and Tatara / PS-05 had highly heritable characters along with high genetic advance, which offer an opportunity for earlier selection. Hence, more emphasis should be given to these crosses in future wheat breeding programs. Moreover, the perusal of correlation analysis revealed that traits like days to maturity, flag leaf area, plant height, fertile tillers plant -1 , biological yield and harvest index appeared to be most essential sources of affecting the final yield, suggesting that upsurge in wheat yield could be admissible by selecting these traits.

319-326 Download
10
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF OLIVE VARIETIES UNGRAFTED AND GRAFTED ON THE OLEASTER (Olea europea VAR. sylvestris)
GHARABI DHIA, HASSANI ABDELKRIM AND HELLAL BENCHABEN

EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF OLIVE VARIETIES UNGRAFTED AND GRAFTED ON THE OLEASTER (Olea europea VAR. sylvestris)
ABSTRACT:
The objective of this work is to determine the effect of salinity on the morpho-physiological behavior of young olive plants in cuttings and grafted plants, including two local varieties (Chemlal and Sigoise) and two introduced varieties (Manzanilla and Arbiquina). The experiment started with the irrigation of the control with a nutrient solution, while the stressed plants received 100 mM NaCl with four replicates in a greenhouse. The analysis involved changes in the relative content (RWC) of water in plant leaves and their leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal size and wax level on the upper leaf epidermis. According to the results, the RWC leaf area and stomatal density of the treated plants decreased as compared to the control. On the other hand, the wax level increased in the case of salt stress in comparison with the control, both for the grafted plants and for the plants resulting from cuttings.

327-333 Download
11
EFFECT OF STORAGE DURATIONS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POMEGRANATE VARIETIES
SAID RAWAN, TAUFIQ AHMAD, FARZANA BIBI, NABEEL ALAM, WASIM UD DIN, FARID ULLAH, FAZAL GHAFOOR, UMAIR ANWAR, MUHAMMAD AIZAZ , IRFAN SAEED AND AWAIS KHAN

EFFECT OF STORAGE DURATIONS ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POMEGRANATE VARIETIES
ABSTRACT:
The effect of storage duration on Physico-chemical characteristics of pomegranate varieties was investigated at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Tarnab Research station Pakistan during the year 2016 using completely randomized design (CRD) with each treatment replicated three times. Two pomegranate varieties (Kandahari and Charat) were stored for different storage durations (0, 2, 4, 6 weeks). The data was recorded on total soluble solids, reducing sugar (%), total sugar (%), non reducing sugar (%), sugar acid ratio and acidity (%). The results showed that the varieties and storage intervals were found significant. Maximum TSS (14.66 0 Brix), total sugar (0.512 %), non reducing sugar (0.414 %), sugar acid ratio of (0.326), and minimum acidity (0.50 %) was found in variety kandahari while in storage durations maximum total soluble solids (16.13 %), total sugar (0.439 %), non reducing sugar (0.624 %), sugar acid ratio (0.389) and minimum acidity (0.11 %) was recorded when stored for six weeks while in both cases reducing sugar was found non- significant. It was concluded that the variety kandhari effected TSS, total sugar, non reducing sugar, sugar acid ratio and acidity having the ability to store up to six weeks with maintained quality attributes.

334-338 Download

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