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1

Human investment and environmental changes exhibit great impacts on winter wheat production. In present paper winter wheat yield adjusted into environment yield and investment yield, to evaluate the effects of environment and investment on winter wheat production on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed the mean value of environment yield at period IV was 851 kg/hm2, with the RE value of 25.6% and during the last 57 years the impacts of environment change on winter wheat yield were negligible. However, the climate changes, particularly fluctuations in the precipitation cycle caused the variation in winter wheat yield/year. In addition the investment yield of winter wheat at period IV was 2663 kg/hm2, with the RI value of 74.4%. Therefore, it is inferred that investment was one of the main reasons which increased winter wheat yield from 1965 to 2014 on the Loess Plateau of China; while RI values were lower during prolonged drought seasons. Consequently we conclude that the impacts of investment on winter wheat yield were limited by the environmental factors especially by rainfall on the Loess Plateau of China.
 

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT ON WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF CHINA 0-0 Download
2
ECOLOGICAL AND TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ROOT ANATOMY IN SOME SPECIES AND CULTIVARS OF GENUS CANNA L

Survival potential of different plant species in varying habitats depend upon their morpho-physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics in that specific environment. Diversity in tissue architecture of any plant species is a promising feature in response to various environmental conditions. The present study was aimed to assess structural modifications in root of the seventeen species/cultivars of Canna L. (family Cannaceae) in relation to their wide distribution and cultivation in different habitats. Seventeen species/cultivars of Canna L. were collected from varying habitats of Faisalabad and its adjoining districts (Punjab, Pakistan). Free hand sectioning and light microscopy technique was used to prepare the double stained permanent slides for the study of different structural modifications of root in relation to variety of environmental conditions. Overall, on the basis of root anatomical studies, the wide distribution of various Canna species/cultivars can be attributed to their thicker root epidermis, large cortical cells, greater metaxylem area, smaller vessels and highest aerenchyma area and large pith area.

HINA KANWAL, MANSOOR HAMEED, NOREEN AKHTER, AISHA ILYAS, AMMARA MAHMOOD, NIGHAT NOREEN 0-0 Download
3
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN ON ONION (Allium cepa UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITION OF PESHAWAR

The response of onion (Allium cepa L) to different level of nitrogen was studied in Peshawar at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab during 2015-2016. Nitrogen levels under trial were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg per hectare. The statistical analysis revealed that different nitrogen levels significantly affected all the growth parameters studied. Maximum leaf length (54.48 cm), plant height (56.33 cm), average bulb weight (78.44 g), average bulb diameter (4.5cm), yield (14,000 kgha -1 ) was recorded in plots fertilized with nitrogen @ 150 kgha -1 , whereas the average maximum number of leaves (6.93) were noted in plots that has received nitrogen @ 100 kgha -1 . It is concluded from the study that nitrogen @ 150 kgha -1 should be used for higher productivity of onion under agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

MUHAMMAD ZAKIRULLAH , NUMAN ALI,TARIQ JAN, SYED HARIS AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD YOUNAS 0-0 Download
4
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT pH LEVELS ON THE IN VITRO MYCELIA GROWTH OF ALTERNARIA SP, THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L)
An  in  vitro  study  was  conducted  to  check  the  mycelia  growth  of  different  isolates  of  Alternaria  sp  on 
different pH levels (Normal, 6.0 and 8.0) in the Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Agriculture, 
Peshawar during 2010 growing season of the crop. Alternaria  sp from all the six isolates was cultured aseptically. 
The experiment was conducted by using three factors Completely Randomized (CR) design. The responses of 
all  the  six  isolates  (Chamkani,  Nasirur,  Taimalpura,  Jabba  Daudzai,  Zakhi  Miana  and  Garhi  Momin)  of 
Alternaria  sp were significantly different at various pH  (normal, 6.0 and 8.0) levels. Data were recorded after 
five and ten days of incubation at 250C. The mycelia growth of all the six isolates were maximum at normal pH 
of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium as compared to 6.0 and 8.0. Locations also affected t he response of 
Alternaria sp to different pH leves
HAKIM KHAN , MUHID KHAN AND MARIA 0-0 Download
5
EFFECTS OF ZINC, BORON AND SULPHUR ON THE YIELD AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF WHEAT CROP
To evaluate the effect of Zinc (Zn),  boran (B)  and  sulphur (S) alone and in combination on wheat yield  and nutrient uptake, an experiment was conducted at  New Developmental Farm of the University of Agricultural Peshawar during winter 2010. The experiment was carried out in  randomized complete block design  having  three  replications.  The NPK fertilizers were applied at rate of 120:90:60 kg ha-1in the farm  of urea, DAP and potassium chloride, respectively. Sulphur, zinc and boron were applied at rate of 60:10:2 kg ha-1in form of ammonium sulfate, hepta-hydrated zinc sulfate and borax, respectively. Wheat variety “Siran” was sown on 13th November 2010 with row to row distance of 25 cm and plot size of 3x5 m2.  All the treatments  caused  significant (P<0.05)  differences  in all  the  studied parameters.  Plots  receiving zinc, boron and sulphur resulted in  significantly higher dry matter yield and grain yield.  Moreover, combined application of  S + B + Zn resulted in higher  Zn and  S Uptake of leaves  and leaf  P, B, SO4-S  contents.  Thus application of  sulphur, zinc and boron at the rate of 60:10:2 kg ha-1 produced higher yield of wheat.
SAHIB JAN, NASRULLAH, RAFIULLAH, MUHAMMAD ISMAIL KHAN , IKRAM ULLAH, MUHAMMAD IZHAR SHAFI AND FAZAL-E-RABI 0-0 Download
6
INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM LEVELS ON GLADIOLUS CORMS PRODUCTION IN OPEN FIELD AND INTERCROPPING CONDITIONS
The influence of potassium levels on gladiolus corm (Gladiolus grandiflorus) production under two growing conditions were studied at Agriculture Research Institute, Mingora Swat. The two growing conditions (open field and intercropping) and potassium levels (0, 30, 60 and 90) were studied during the experiment. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement  with three replications.  Light intensity and soil humidity  were  also recorded in 
both conditions. Data was recorded on various growth attributes, which showed that both growing conditions and potassium levels had significantly affected  most of the attributes. The maximum sprouting percentage (93.7%), diameter of corms (5.3 cm), corms weight (69.9 g), number of cormels plant-1 (19.0) and  survival percentage (88.8%) were recorded in open field,while maximum plant height (120.2 cm) was observed in intercropping. Moreover, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (6.5), plant height (120.4 cm), diameter of corms (4.3 cm), corms weight (47.9 g), number of cormels plant-1(16.9) and  survival percentage (88.8%) were  recorded in plots applied with 90 kg potassium ha-1.  Hence,  it was concluded  that gladiolus could be grown in open field condition with application of potassium @ 90 kg ha-1for better growth and production of corms underthe agro-climatic conditions of Swat valley.
FAROOQ , ASHFAQ ALAM , NOOR UL AMIN , WASIM BILAL , MOHAMMAD ABDUL RAUF , KHALIL UR RAHMAN , ROSHAN ALI , MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM , JAVED RAHMAN , MUHAMMAD SHAHID AND NADIA BOSTAN 0-0 Download
7
PHENOLOGY, GROWTH AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY ROW SPACING AND NITROGEN PLACEMENT METHODS
An experiment entitled “Phenology, growth  and yield characteristics of maize as affected by row spacing and nitrogen  placement  methods''  was  conducted  at  Research  Farm  of  Agronomy,  The  University  of  Agricul ture Peshawar, during kharif 2015. Randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements (RCBD split plot) having four replications were used. Row spacing (45, 55, 65 and 75 cm) were allotted to main plots while nitrogen placement methods (control,  single side of the row, between the rows and both sides of the row,) were assigned to sub plots. Maximum  days to 50% flowering (54.8) and days to 50% tasseling (62.5) were recorded for 45 cm row spacing while higher ear weight at maturity (76.4 g) and more number of grains ear-1 (376.4) were recorded for 75 cm row spacing and  grain yield (2226.2 kg ha-1) was  obtained from row spacing of 65 cm  row spacing.Similarly,  more number of days to 50 % silking (63.6), higher ear weight at maturity (77.4 g), more  number of grains row-1(339.4) and higher grain yield (2184.9 kg ha-1) was recorded from nitrogen placement to both sides of the row.  All the interactions (RS×NP) were found non-significant for all the parameters. It is concluded that maize  preferably  sown  at  65  cm  row  spacing  with  nitrogen  applied  to  both  sides  of  the  rows  method  to  get 
maximum yield.
ZAID KHAN, MUHAMMAD AYOUB KHAN , SAJJAD AHMAD , HAFEEZ UR RAHIM , BARKAT ALI , NAWAB KHAN AND BILAL AHMAD 0-0 Download
8
PHOSTROGEN; AS AN EFFECTIVE PLANT FOOD FOR OPTIMUM VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF ZINNIA (Zinnia elegans L.) UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF D.I. KHAN-PAKISTAN

A pots / containers study was organized during summer 2016 to determine the effect of Phostrogen levels on Zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.) dreamland to improve its vegetative and reproductive characteristics. The study was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) one factor with five treatments {T1 = 0 (Control for comparison), T2 = 50, T3 = 150, T4 = 250, and T5 = 350 ml liter-1} of Phostrogen levels and was replicated three times. The plant food (Phostrogen) was applied to the plants after 15 days of transplanting in the form of foliar spray. All the applied Phostrogen levels have significant effects on the Zinnia plant studied parameters. The obtained data of Zinnia plant vegetative growth and floral characteristic revealed, the outmost plant height (24.50 cm), leaves Plant-1 (73.30), branches Plant-1 (12.03) and blooming period (22.33) were noted at treated with 350 ml and then 250 ml of Phostrogen application. While, the plant height (17.40 cm), leaves Plant-1 (47.23), branches Plant-1 (4.47) and blooming period (16.27) were lowest observe in control followed by 50 ml application. In case of flower plant-1 and flower size in diameter were maximum founded at 150 ml followed by 50 ml of Phostrogen level whereas, minimum results noted when plants were treated with 350 ml of Phostrogen application and control. So, from the experimental study it is concluded, that the moderate levels of Phostrogen should adopt for maximum floral characters and high levels for getting good vegetative characters in Zinnia under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan.

SHAH ZAREEN, MUHAMMAD NISAR, SHAHZADA KHAN, AKHTAR ALI, IJAZ AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD HAROON 0-0 Download
9
YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT AS INFLUENCED BY VARIOUS TILLAGE OPERATIONS AND SEED RATES
Various tillage operation and seed rate could be operated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth. There by enhancing WUE, Sunlight, soil available nutrients and yield of wheat on sustainable basis.  To evaluate response of wheat yield  and yield components  to  different tillage practices (i.e. 3 Times Chisel Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (40cms), 3 Times Mould Board Plough +2  Times Rotavator (30cms),  2 Times Disc harrow + 2  Times Rotavator (20cms),1 Time Cultivator + 1  Time 
Rotavator (10cms)  and seed rates (i.e.  70, 85,100,115,130,145,160,175 kg ha-1). The research experiment  was conducted in randomized complete block  Design  with split plot arrangement with three replications at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2014-2015. Significant effect of different tillage practices on spike weight, grains spike-1, biological and grain yield were recorded. Highest spike weight (2.92 g), grains spike-1(41), grain yield (3418 
kg ha-1), were  recorded from treatment of Two Time Disc Harrow + Two  Time Cultivator (20 cm). Highest  biological yield (10141 kg ha-1) was observed from 3 Times Mould Board Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (30cms). Maximum weeds dry weight m-2(32.8 g) was recorded with tillage practices 3 Chisel Plough+2 Rotavator (40 cm). Seed rates also showed significant effect on spike weight, grains weight spike-1, grains per spike,  weeds dry weight m-2, grain  yield and biological  yield. Maximum spike weight (2.88 g),grains weight spike-1(1.26 g), grains per spike (42), grain yield(3573 kg ha-1),were observed with seed rate of115 kg ha-1. Highest biological yield (10348 kg ha-1) were recorded from seed rate 175 kg ha-1. Maximum weeds dry weight m-2(30.8 g) was observed with seed rate  70 kg ha-1.  It is concluded that tillage practices 2  Times Disc harrow + 2  Times Rotavator (20cms) and seed rate of 115kg ha-1 produced maximum yield of wheat.
SAJJAD AHMAD , MUHAMMAD SHAF , INAMULLAH , HAFEEZ UR RAHIM , ZAID KHAN , MUHAMMAD AYOUB KHAN , LAIQ ZADA , USMAN 0-0 Download
10
YIELDAND QUALITY OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATIONS
Atrial entitled “yield  and quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum l.) as influenced by different calcium and magnesium concentrations” were conducted at Horticulture Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Calcium at the rate of (0%, 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45 %,) and Magnesium at the rate of (0%, 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.12%) were applied as foliar spray using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Maximum  Number of flowers cluster-1 (5.96), number of fruits cluster-1(4.45), fruit weight (79.04 g),  fruits kg-1 (12.83), total yield (ton ha-1) (22.83) was observed in plants with 0.30% Calcium application and number of defectives fruits (143.73) were observed in plants with control fertilizers condition. Similarly,  maximum  number of flowers cluster-1 (6.34), number of fruits cluster-1  (4.57) fruit weight (77.01 g), fruits kg-1(12.68), total yield  ton ha-1(21.39) were  observed in plants with 0.08% Magnesium application and number of defectives fruits (140.94) were observed in plants with control fertilizers condition.  Among various treatments used Calcium and Magnesium at the rate of 0.30% and 0.08 % showed better result in most of the growth and yield parameters.
MOHAMMAD ILYAS , GOHAR AYUB , FARZANA BEGUM , MANZOOR AHMAD AND AZMAT ALI AWAN 0-0 Download

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