ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Current Issue June, 2017 (Published)
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
IN VITRO GROWTH COMPARISON OF VARIOUS ISOLATES OF LEAF SPOTOF BITTER GOURD PATHOGEN (ALTERNARIA SP)

An in vitro study was conducted to characterize ten (10) isolates of Alternaria sp, the cause of leaf spot of bitter gourd. Isolates were collected from Peshawar (Chamkani, Nasirpur, Taimalpura, Yaseen Abad and Budhni) and Nowshera (Jabba Daudzai, Zakhi Miana, Ghari Momin, Tarujabba and Qasim Ali Baig) districts during 2010 growing season of the crop. Alternaria sp from all the ten locations were isolated in aseptic conditions. Then, an experiment was framed using Completely Randomized (CR) design. Each isolate was replicated five times. Data were collected after five and ten days of incubation at 250C of Alternaria sp. Significant differences were observed in colony growth of Alternaria sp after five and ten days of incubation. The colony diameter of Alternaria sp isolated from Taimalpura was the highest (7.9 cm), whose growth was the fastest and lowest (4.5 cm) of Nasirpur and Jabba Daudzai having slowest mycelia growth.

HAKIM KHAN, MARYAM TARIQ AND MARIA 165-168 Download
2
THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS TOWARD ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION

Many empirical studies focus on the value estimation through the use of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) that asks the respondent to elicit an amount of willingness to pay (WTP) for the preservation of a specified resource. This study links the environmental perspectives with WTP to investigate the environmental conflicts between two environmental groups. We select the preservation of the Chi-ku Wetland as a case example involving environmental conflicts by surveying two environmental groups. Analysis reveals that respondents with more eco-centric perspectives, and higher income are willing to pay more on the preservation of the specified wetland. One of the environmental groups called Coast Association (CA)aiming to promote eco-tourisms is found to have more anthropocentric perspectives while the other group called Black-faced Spoonbill Conservation Society (BSCS) engaging in wildlife protection tends to be more eco-centric toward the preservation of the specified wetland. More respondents in CA refuse to assess WTP than the respondents in BSCS. Respondents with less eco-centric perspectives in CA tend to refuse a valuation while respondents with more eco-centric perspectives in BSCS are more tending to refuse valuation.

YI-TUI CHEN AND CHUNG-CHIANG CHEN 169-176 Download
3
ILLITE CLAY MODIFIED WITH HYDROXYAPATITE - INNOVATIVE PERSPECTIVES FOR SOIL REMEDIATION FROM LEAD (II)

Clay with its properties plays an important role in various processes including those which are related to soil fertility and solution of environmental pollution problems. Clay is a widespread natural resource which can be applied for diverse purposes - from construction material and production of ceramics to medicine and cosmetics. Clay is also studied to seek new approaches for use of raw local resources around the world. In this study, clay was modified by using calcium and sodium chloride, nitric acid (protonation), iron oxyhydroxide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate in different proportions of Ca/P molar ratio. Modified clay was prepared and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface measurement analysis and methylene blue spectrophotometric method. Preliminary studies for sorption of lead (II) in spiked solutions as well as leaching tests were performed for soil samples spiked with Pb (II) amended with modified clay. Sorption of Pb (II) on modified clay surface is based mainly on reactions of physical capture on complicately structured surface and ion exchange reactions. Modified illite clay can be seen as perspective soil amendment for immobilization of lead in soil.

RUTA OZOLA, ANDREJS KRAUKLIS, JURIS BURLAKOVS, ZANE VINCEVICA-GAILE, VITA RUDOVICA, ANNA TRUBACA-BOGINSKA, DIANA BOROVIKOVA, AMIT BHATNAGAR, ILZE VIRCAVA AND MARIS KLAVINS 177-189 Download
4
ANALYSIS OF THE GENOTYPE BY SALT INTERACTION OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VOULGAR L.) GENOTYPES AT EARLY GROWTH STAGE BY GRAPHICAL MODELS

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in worldwide agriculture. This has incited a quest towards with an aim of improving the crop plants. Establishment of plants at early growth stage as one of the most important determinants of high yield is severely affected by soil salinity. Objective of this study was tolerance assessment and estimating the magnitude of genotype x salt interaction and stability for barley biomass production in the salinity conditions. For this purpose, a green-house experiment with nine genotypes in five levels of salinity using graphical models of AMMI and GGE biplot was performed. According to results, salinity significantly reduced the biomass production of genotypes and genotype x salt interaction effect was significant. The obtained result from graphical models was similar to those obtained from the analysis of variance and statistical comparison of means of genotypes biomass production. According to results, WB7910 was the most stable genotype with higher yielding on average and MBS8712 and 5Shori had a positive interaction with salinity in a wide range of stress. The level of 13.5 ds/m of salinity was determined as representativeness and discriminating among salinity levels. 

HOSSEIN ASKARI, SEIYED KAMAL KAZEMITABAR, HAMID NAJAFI ZARRINI, MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN SABERI 190-196 Download
5
STUDIES ON GENETIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L. MONECH)

Significant differences were found among genotypes for all the characters studied except number of lobes leaf-1, number of branches plant-1, number of ridges fruit-1, node at which first flower appear, diameter of fruit and average weight of fruit. The highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficient observed for number of branches plant-1. The GCV and PCV values were found influenced by environmental factors. The heritability estimates in broad sense were high for plant height and number of ridges/fruit, while low heritability estimates were observed for node at which first flower appear. The genetic advance as percentage of mean was high for number of branches plant-1. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance observed for number of branches plant-1 indicating that they are governed by additive gene action and could be improved through simple selection.

BHARAT TUKARAM PATIL, VRUSHALI RANGANATH RODE, MADHUKAR NILKANTH BHALEKAR AND KAILAS GOPAL SHINDE 197-201 Download
6
HERITABILITY AND SELECTION RESPONSE FOR MORPHOLOGICAL AND YIELD TRAITS IN NORMAL AND LATE PLANTED WHEAT

Late planting seriously influenced wheat production in Pakistan due to terminal heat stress, especially during anthesis and grain filling stages. Analysis of variance across two environments revealed significant differences (P≤0.05) among wheat genotypes for spike length, grains spike-1 and grain yield. Genotype × environment interaction was significant for spikes m-2, spike length, grains spike-1 and grain yield which indicated differential performance of wheat genotypes across the two environments for 15 genotypes including checks. Heritability for spikes m-2, spike length, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were 0.41 vs. 0.61, 0.78 vs. 0.85, 0.78 vs. 0.25, and 0.82 vs. 0.63 under normal and late planting environment, respectively. Expected selection response for most of the traits was greater than observed selection response under both environments. Mean of the 3 top ranking genotypes was greater than the mean of two check cultivar’s yield contributing traits. Selection differential for most of the yield contributing traits was greater under late than normal planting. None of the 3 top ranking genotypes for yield components were common under the two planting environments. Net reduction in grain yield due to late planting recorded as 33% indicated non- adaptation of wheat genotypes to stress encountered.

IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL, AZIZ-UL-WAHAB, DURR-E-NAYAB, SAIMA SHER GHANI, MUKHTAR ALAM, HIDAYAT ULLAH AND WASIF ULLAH KHAN 202-211 Download
7
BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A MONOTYPIC RELICT ENDEMIC SPECIES: DORYSTOECHAS HASTATA (LAMIACEAE)

In this study, morphological and ecological properties of Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham which is a species belonging to Lamiaceae family was investigated. D. hastata has 40-100 cm lenght; with pale roots; deeply branched, woody shrub and globular stem; aromatic; leaves are lanceolate-hastate, 2.2-3.5x5.1-8.7 cm, with dense hairs; infloresence is a spica; kalix lenght is 3.48-4.23 mm in flower, 4.6-7.6 mm in fruit; corolla white and 4.3-6.9 mm; pollens which are isopolar, tricolporate and 60x100 µ; fruit is a light brown and bright nutlet. D. hastata distributes in areas which have climate like Mediterranean type, above calcerous main rock, dominant soil characteristic is arenaceous-silty arenaceous, among elements which have xerophyte macchie characteristics. Seeds of this plant germinates % 1.25 at light and % 1 at dark media. Additionally, statistically significant relationship among plant morphological characteristics and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were determined. Key

GULCIN ISIK AND ERSIN YUCEL 212-221 Download
8
RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION DEPTHS AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE TO VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF YOUNG OLIVE CULTIVARS

The response of different irrigation depths on vegetative growth and nutrient uptake of young trees of different olive cultivars i.e., Baincullela, Leccino, and Frantoio were studied. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four irrigation depths with three replications. The soil analysis was done at the start and end of the experiment. Potential evapo-transpiration and rainfall were measured daily accordingly. Drippers were adjusted each time according to the water requirement and according to the depth. The moisture content of the soil was determined at different irrigation depths (30, 60, and 90 cm) with gravimetric method on monthly basis. The irrigation water was applied for 100, 80, 60 and 40% amount of relative irrigation depths release as for pan evapo-transpiration consumption. The data for shoot growth, shoot diameter, leaf area and leaf water content were recorded. The results showed significant variations in all studied parameters with respect to both irrigation depths and cultivars, except leaf area. Different irrigation depths as well cultivar’s type substantially affected the nutrient uptake. The maximum nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium uptake were recorded with controlled irrigation depth in cv. Frantoio. It was concluded that well water application has best performance with cv. Frantoio.

AZMAT ALI AWAN, AZAZ SHAKIR, AQIB SHAKEEL AND MUHAMMAD JEHANGIR 222-231 Download
9
SEEDLING AGE AND NITROGEN LEVEL ENHANCE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONION (Allium cepa)

A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of transplanting ages (40, 50 and 60 days after sowing) and nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) on vegetative growth and yield of   onion. It is found that seedling transplanted at 40 days after sowing were able to gain maximum height, leaf number, leaf length, maximum size and weight of bulbs with high yield as compared to other seedling age. There were significant differences in the vegetative and yield parameters between the different levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen application of 120 kg ha-1 enhanced vegetative parameters that further contributed to high yield as compared to other levels. Due to more time for standing in the field after transplanting, 40 days seedlings obtained high cull percentage while nitrogen application had no clear effect on the cull percentage. Interaction effect of both factors was significant in the vegetative growth related parameters at the initial growth stage but at maturity effect was non significant. The combined effect showed that application of 120 kg ha-1 nitrogen to seedlings transplanted at 40 days enhanced growth and yield of onion with no significant role in cull percentage. The overall results showed that early transplanting and 120 kg ha-1 nitrogen were most effective for maximum onion yield.

TAYEB MUHAMMAD, MUHAMMAD AMJAD, MUHAMMAD ALI, MUHAMMAD HANIF, MAHMOUD ABDALLA MAHMOUD HUSSEIN, ABDUL HASEEB AND ABAS NOOR 232-239 Download
10
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AMONG TOMATO GERMPLASAMS

 Eleven tomato genotypes AVTO-9708, AVTO-1288, AVTO-1289, AVTO-1405, AVTO-1409, AVTO-1418, AVTO-1420, AVTO-1424, AVTO-1429, AVTO-1455, and AVTO-1456 received from AVRDC (The World Vegetable Center) were evaluated at Agriculture Research Station, Mingora Swat, Pakistan during 2015. Germination percentage, days to first flowering, days to first fruiting, days to first fruit ripening, internode length, leaf length, leaf width, and stem diameter were studied during the experiment. Higher germination (91.3 %) war recorded in AVTO-1288. Early first flowering (51.7) and first fruit ripening (87.7) was observed in AVTO-1405 whereas early first fruiting (61.3) was recorded in AVTO-1409. The lengthy leaves (7.0 cm) and wider leaves (3.8 cm) were recorded for AVTO-1405, while bigger stem diameter (1.9) was recorded for AVTO-1456. These genotypes should be further studied for desired character and may be exploited in future breeding program.

SAJID KHAN, JAVED RAHMAN, NOOR HABIB KHAN, IQBAL HUSSIAN, NASAR KHAN, IZHARULLAH AND FAYAZ KHAN 240-244 Download
11
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POULTRY MANURES ON YIELD AND YIELDING COMPONENTS OF MAIZE

Importance of Corn (Zea mays L.) is justified by its nutritious content especially because of the presence of high protein, minerals, vitamins and other energetic nutrients. Application of poultry manure has long been recognized the most important organic fertilizer in order to improves soil properties especially soil fertility by adding both major and essential nutrients as well as soil organic matter which improve moisture and nutrient retention. Present research focuses on the effectiveness of different levels of poultry manure (PM) on the growth and yield of maize. Research was conducted out at Agronomy Research Farm (ARF), The University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer season 2016. Three levels of PM (2, 5 and 9 t ha-1) were studied along with the control treatment (No PM). The Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. It was found that all studied parameters except number of ears plant-1 were significantly affected by application of PM.  Higher plant height (210cm), rows ear-1(14), number of grains ear-1 (27), biological yield (12341 kg ha-1), grain yield (4121 kg ha-1), thousand grain weight (239g) and harvest index (21.8%) were recorded by the application of PM at 9 ton ha-1.

MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM, NAWAB ALI, MUHAMMAD ZAHIR AFRIDI, MUHAMMAD SHAFI, MUHAMMAD OWAIS IQBAL, BURHAN UD DIN, IBADULLAH, SAJID ALI AND JEHANZEB 245-249 Download
12
FARMERS' EMPOWERMENT UNDER FSC APPROACH REGARDING SELECTED AGRICULTURAL INPUTS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

With the emergence of new ideas and approaches in agricultural extension system modern phenomenon like privatization, decentralization and public-private partnership has received more success in the farming communities. Farm Services Center is also such type of approach initiated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. In this study 400 member farmers from five different districts named Swat, Dir Lower, Swabi, Mansehra and Dera Ismail Khan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province were selected for data collection purpose as a sample size to determine the farmers' empowerment under FSC approach regarding selected agricultural inputs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. 63.25, 41.46, 44.94, 68.59 and 59.48% were benefited by FSCs regarding cultivator, rotavator, maize sheller, land leveler and mould board plough respectively. The inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and farm machinery are insignificantly related to the number of years being registered, when comparing those who are registered 6-10 years to those registered more than ten years. The study concludes that FSCs failed to provide all machinery to all of the respondents. Farmers were much facilitated regarding provision of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. It is recommended that FSCs should be furnished with enough farm machinery to be rented out to the farming community and also should take initiative to compel private companies to sponsor schemes for low cost inputs.

MUHAMMAD ZAFARULLAH KHAN, TARIQ SHAH, ASIF NAWAZ, REHMAT ULLAH, IKRAM UL HAQ, AMIR KHATTAM AND ABDUR REHMAN 250-259 Download

NewsLetter Sign Up !

Please enter your Email and Name to join.

Digital Newsletter

To unsubsribe please click here ».