ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2017 , Volume  3, Issue 1 (Published)
Move your mouse curser on the title to view the abstract of the paper
S.No. Title Authors Pages Download
1
PHYTOREMEDIATION: A NOVEL STRATEGY AND ECO- FRIENDLY GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC METALS
ZAKIR HUSSAIN MALIK, K. CHELLAPPAN RAVINDRAN AND GANESAN SATHIYARAJ

PHYTOREMEDIATION: A NOVEL STRATEGY AND ECO- FRIENDLY GREEN TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC METALS
ABSTRACT:
Phytoremediation also called as green remediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soils, sludge, ground water and waste water. Phytoremediation has a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, remove of metals through accumulation, dissipation and immobilization. The conventional methods existing currently for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils are expensive and not necessarily eco ? friendly. Phytoremediation is a new ?green technology? which uses plants potential to reinstate the health of the environment. A variety of plants have been identified which are capable of accumulating high concentrations of metals in their aerial parts and roots or stabilizing the metals in soils and thus restricting their translocation to the shoots and removing the metals from the soil through synthesis of volatile compound.

1-18 Download
2
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF Carduus nutans SEEDS
GULCIN ISIK AND ERSIN YUCEL

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF Carduus nutans SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Carduus nutans L. is a biennial plant which is belonging to Asteraceae family known as musk or nodding thistle commonly. Carduus species includes different active ingredients like essential oil, resin, tannin, fatty oil, starch, flavonolignans, polyacetylenes. Importance of phytochemistry and chemical ecology researches increase gradually. The fat extraction was carried out by Soxhlet method with B?chi Extraction System B-811. The GC analysis was carried out using an Agilent 6890N GC system. The flame ionization detector (FID) temperature was set to 300?C. The GC-MS analysis was carried out with an Agilent 5975 GC-MSD system. Innowax FSC column as above was used with helium as carrier gas (0.8 mL/minute gas flow). In this study, we found 13 different fatty acid compounds in Carduus nutans seed extract. The compounds were caprylic, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, margaric, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, behenic and lignoceric acid.

19-25 Download
3
PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY AND TOLERANCE TO SALINITY IN BARLEY (Hordeum voulgar L.) GENOTYPES AT GERMINATION STAGE
HOSSEIN ASKARI, SEIYED KAMAL KAZEMITABAR , HAMID NAJAFI ZARRINI , MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN SABERI

PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY AND TOLERANCE TO SALINITY IN BARLEY (Hordeum voulgar L.) GENOTYPES AT GERMINATION STAGE
ABSTRACT:
This study was performed to assess several indices for identifying barley genotypes with better germination at early growth stage under saline conditions. Nine barley promising lines and cultivars i.e. STW82153(A), MBS8712(B), ESBYTM8910(C), 4Shori (D), 5Shori (E), WB7910(F), Valfajr(G), MBS8715(H) and Jo torsh(I) were studied in five salinity levels (electrical conductivities, dsm-1) i,e, S1 =4.5 (control), S2=7.5, S3=10.5, S4=13.5 and S5=16.5. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three replications. Salt stress significantly affected the performance of barley genotypes. Salt tolerance and salt damage index were more suitable indices for selecting barley genotypes tolerant to salt stress. Based on stability parameters, the genotypes with more tolerance for salinity were the most phenotypically stable. The results showed the ESBYTM8910 and MBS8715 genotypes appeared better than others across the salinity levels.

26-32 Download
4
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) LEVELS IN RESIDENTIAL HOMES IN HELWAN, EGYPT
ALIA ABD EL-SHAKOURA, AHMAD SALEM EL-EBIARIEB, YASSER HASSAN IBRAHIMA, AHMAD ESMAT ABDEL MONIEMB, ASMAA MOHAMED EL-MEKAWYA

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) LEVELS IN RESIDENTIAL HOMES IN HELWAN, EGYPT
ABSTRACT:
Air quality data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indoors are sparse or lacking in Egypt. The concentration of 16 PAHs in particulate matter of both indoor and outdoor air of Helwan city (south Cairo, Egypt) were measured simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography during one year, started from September 2010 to August 2011. Helwan City is characterized by the presence of industrial activities beside traffic and commercial activities. The source identification of PAHs in airborne particulate matter was performed by diagnostic ratios. The outdoor annual mean concentration of PAHs over Helwan city was 708.9 ng/m3, while the indoor PAHs levels ranged from 694.7 ng/m3 at site 2 to 1038.7 ng/m3 at site 3. The average annual mean concentration of B[a]P over Helwan city was 34.8 ng/m3. The mean annual concentration of B[a]P in all homes was 70 ng/m3. B[a]P-equivalent carcinogenic power (BAPE) in outdoor air were 99.96, 162.31, 71.1 and 36.75 at sites 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. On the other hand, indoor BAPE were 193.04, 92.91, 145.91 and 106.47 at sites 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

33-48 Download
5
MOBILIZATION OF PRE-ANTHESIS STEM, LEAF AND CHAFF RESERVES (PR) TO FINAL GRAIN WEIGHT OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
PRONAY BALA AND SRIPATI SIKDER

MOBILIZATION OF PRE-ANTHESIS STEM, LEAF AND CHAFF RESERVES (PR) TO FINAL GRAIN WEIGHT OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Physiology and Ecology Department of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh for two consecutive years 2011-12 and 2012-13 with eight wheat genotypes under three growing conditions viz., 27 November, 17 December and 7 January to determine changes of reserve mobilization of wheat .At different growing conditions, heat sensitive genotypes showed higher pre-anthesis stem, leaf and chaff reserves (PR) mobilization (14.82% to 18.92% and 13.75% to 17.32% for the first and second year, respectively) to the final grain weight compared to moderate heat tolerant (MHT) and heat tolerant genotypes. Each genotype showed a common tendency of higher PR mobilization to grain under late and very late growing heat stress conditions. But the increased values of PR were lower in heat tolerant genotypes than those of MHT and heat sensitive genotypes.

49-55 Download
6
MOLECULAR MARKER BASED DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GAMMA MUTATED TRICHODERMA SPICES
SAMIRA SHAHBAZI, HODA ASLE FALLAH, HAMED ASKARI1, MOHAMMAD ALI EBRAHIMI

MOLECULAR MARKER BASED DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GAMMA MUTATED TRICHODERMA SPICES
ABSTRACT:
To study the effects of irradiation on genetic diversity in mutated isolates of Trichoderma spp , RAPD (molecular marker) was used. To induce mutation in these two Trichoderma species (T. viride and T.harzianum ), spore suspension have been gamma radiated by 0 to450 Gry Gamma ray (with 50 Gry intervals). Optimum dose for inducing mutation have been evaluated on 250 Gary. The phenotypic data showed that, gamma irradiation effects on mycelial growth, color and colony shape and spore reproduction in Trichoderma. Among 10 RAPD primers which have been reported for Trichoderma bio-diversity diagnosis, five RAPD primers (OPA 09, OPA10, OPA11, OPA14 and OPA 16) were chosen, because, these primers amplified different pattern of bands and distinctly grouped the mutants of T. viride and T.harzianum spices. The results of RAPD marker at 84% similarity, divided T. viride mutant to 12, 16, 14, 20 and 19 Group respectively. Dendrograms by using UPGMA method based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient at similarity level of 84% , were divided T.harzianum mutated isolates into three groups. Two mutated isolates (Th9 and Th17) in one group, the rest of the mutant strains in the second group and parent strains (non-irradiate) in the third one.

56-71 Download
7
COMBINED TREATMENT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND ETHYLENE DIAMINETETRA ACETIC ACID INCREASES THE PHYTOEXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF THREE CROP PLANTS FROM TANNERY SOLID WASTE AMENDED SOIL
FIRDAUS-E-BAREEN AND SAMYA SHAFQAT

COMBINED TREATMENT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND ETHYLENE DIAMINETETRA ACETIC ACID INCREASES THE PHYTOEXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF THREE CROP PLANTS FROM TANNERY SOLID WASTE AMENDED SOIL
ABSTRACT:
Pot trials for phytoextraction of metals using Pennisetum glaucum, Spinacea oleracea and Sorghum bicolor were carried out. The results showed significantly better growth and metal uptake when given combined treatment of PGR and EDTA. A multi-metal contamination was analyzed using tannery solid waste as 5% and 10% amendments in soil. Phytoextraction was observed for four metals of major concern in the tannery solid waste namely, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn. In general, the amount of metals removed depended upon the level of contamination in soil. The two metals, Cd and Cr were absorbed selectively by these plants while no specific behavior was observed for Cu and Zn. Sorghum bicolor appeared to be a better accumulator of Cd but not of Cr, while P. glaucum and S. oleracea were better accumulators of Cr but poor accumulators of Cd. Spinacea oleracea showed the best growth and metal accumulation in tannery solid waste and therefore can be exploited in phytoremediation of this kind of soil.

72-78 Download
8
EFFECT OF PHOSPHOROUS AND ZINC UNDER DIFFERENT APPLICATION METHODS ON YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.)
SAEED ULLAH, AMANULLAH JAN, MURAD ALI, AFTAB AHMAD, AMIR ULLAH, GULZAR AHMAD, KHILWAT AFRIDI, MUHAMMAD ISHAQ, MUHAMMAD SAEED AND AYESHA RIAZ

EFFECT OF PHOSPHOROUS AND ZINC UNDER DIFFERENT APPLICATION METHODS ON YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.)
ABSTRACT:
To study the response of chickpea to phosphorus various (35, 70, 105 kg ha-1), zinc (10, 20, 30 kg ha-1) levels application methods (broadcast and band placement), an experiment was piloted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during Rabi season 2013-14. Chickpea variety ?NIFA 2005? was sown in randomized complete block design having four replications. One control was used for both phosphorus and zinc levels. Fertilizer application methods (AM) had substantial effects on all the parameters excluding days to flowering. The effect of zinc (Zn) on days to flowering and seeds pod-1 was not significant at 5% level of probability. Plots supplied with Zn at 10 kg ha-1 had significantly higher 1000 seed weight (223.42 g) and grain yield (1694 kg ha-1). Phosphorus (P) application had significant influence on all the parameters. Phosphorus application at 70 kg ha-1 had considerably higher seeds pod-1 (1.5), 1000 seed weight (223.67 g) and grain yield (1696 kg ha-1). Early flowering (137 days) and higher grain yield (1694 kg ha-1) were noticed in the plots employed with 70 kg P ha-1though it was at same level with 105 kg P ha-1 for seeds pod-1 (1.6). The treated plots had significantly more seed weight (223.67 g), grain yield (1694 kg ha-1) and early flowering (137 days) as compared with control plots. Placement method of application had significantly higher seed pod1(1.6), seed weight (224.14 g), grain yield (1693 kg ha-1). The interaction between P ? Zn showed that 70 kg ha-1 P ? 10 kg ha-1 Zn produced heavy seed (229 g) and grain yield of (1693 kg ha-1). The interaction between AM ? P exposed that greater grain yield of (1718 kg ha-1) was acquired at band placement at 70 kg P ha-1. It can be concluded from the present study that the placement of P (70 kg ha-1) and Zn (10 kg ha-1) enhanced the yield and its related traits in general as compared to other treatment hence, this combination is recommended for further study to conform its superior effects for higher yield.

79-85 Download
9
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY STATUS OF NATIONAL RICE RESEARCH PROGRAM, HARDINATH, DHANUSHA, NEPAL
DINESH KHADKA, SUSHIL LAMICHHANE, DEV N. TIWARI2 AND KULANAND MISHRA

ASSESSMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY STATUS OF NATIONAL RICE RESEARCH PROGRAM, HARDINATH, DHANUSHA, NEPAL
ABSTRACT:
Soil fertility evaluation is most basic decision making tool for effective sustainable plan of a particular area. Thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate the soil fertility status of the National Rice Research Program (NRRP), Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal. The study area is situated at the latitude 260 47?46.5??N and longitude 85057?49.35?E as well 75masl altitude. A total of 50 soil samples were randomly collected based on the variability of land at a depth of 0-20 cm. A GPS device was used to identify the location of the soil sampling points. Soil samples were analyzed for texture, pH, OM, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn status following standard analytic methods in the laboratory of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The Arc-GIS 10.1 was used to prepare the soil fertility status maps. The data revealed that soil structure was sub-angular blocky and grayish brown in colour. The sand, silt and clay content were 37.17?2.3%, 42.0?1.40% and 20.83?1.28%, respectively and varied six textural classes as loam, clay loam, sandy loam, silt loam, silty clay and silty clay loam. The soil pH (6.59?0.11) was nearly neutral and very low in available sulphur (0.79? 0.06 ppm) and available boron (0.37?0.05 ppm). The organic matter (1.02?0.007%), total nitrogen (0.07?0.002 %), extractable potassium (42.49?2.52 ppm), available zinc (0.83?0.21 ppm) and available manganese (6.75?0.64 ppm) status were low. While, extractable calcium (1120.80?67.30 ppm) and available copper (0.89?0.08 ppm) were medium in status. Similarly, extractable magnesium (207.60?21.10 ppm) and available phosphorus (30.40?2.93 ppm) status were high. Furthermore, available iron (57.79?5.95 ppm) contains very high in status. From this study, it can be concluded that for enhancing efficacy of the rice research, future research strategy should be built based on the soil fertility status of the research farm.

86-105 Download
10
EFFECT OF SOAKING DURATIONS AND SOWING DATES ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF PEACH STONES
IKRAMULLAH, ABDUR RAB, JAVED RAHMAN, MUHAMMAD JEHANGIR, MUHAMMAD

EFFECT OF SOAKING DURATIONS AND SOWING DATES ON THE GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF PEACH STONES
ABSTRACT:
The research work was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute North Mingora (Swat) during 201314 to study the effect of soaking durations and sowing dates on the germination and seedlings growth of peach stones. The experiment was designed in a 2-factor randomized complete block design having three replications. The peach stones were soaked for different durations i.e. 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours and sown on October 10th, October 25th, November 10th and November 25th. Results of the study showed that early germination (91 days) and the highest germination (68.60 %), seedling height (74.23 cm) and seedling diameter (6.59 mm) were recorded in stones sown on November 10th. In case of soaking duration, early germination (95 days) and the highest germination (75.42 %), seedlings height (82.26 cm) and seedlings diameter (6.85 mm) were obtained in peach stones soaked for 36 hours. It is concluded from the study that the peach stones sown on 10th November and soaked for 36 hours performed superior than the rest of the soaking durations and sowing dates.

106-111 Download
11
PERFORMANCE OF F1 HYBRIDS IN SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuus L) UNDER THE ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS OF PESHAWAR VALLEY
IJAZ AHMAD, FIDA MOHAMMAD, SUMAIRA TAJ, FAZAL MUNSIF AND SULTAN AKBER

PERFORMANCE OF F1 HYBRIDS IN SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuus L) UNDER THE ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS OF PESHAWAR VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
This study was carried out at Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan for the evaluation of F1 hybrids, during spring 2002. The material consisted of 10 cytoplasmically male sterile lines (CMS) viz; CMS-300, CMS-341, CMS-383, CMS-303, CMS-320, CMS-382, CMS853, CMS-337, CMS-372, CMS-352 and 13 restorer lines viz; R-368, R-346, R-274, R-344, R-266, R-365, R-374, R388, HAR4, R-311, R-373, R-G1G1, R-356. These lines were randomly crossed to obtain the F1 hybrids and were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications in spring 2002. Data were recorded on plant height, leaf area, plant maturity, seeds head-1 and yield (kg ha-1). Highly significant differences were recorded among the hybrids for all the traits. Among the hybrids, CMS-341 ? R-255 exhibited the highest values for seeds head-1 and yield, while CMS-373 ? R-346 had higher plant height whereas, CMS-382 ? R-344 had greater leaf area. The hybrids CMS-341 ? R-266, CMS-372 ? R-374, CMS-372 ? R-374 and CMS-341 ? R-373 among 23 hybrids appeared best for yield and is therefore, recommended to be included in Abbottabad breeding programs for further improvement.

112-115 Download
12
EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CORIANDER
TAUFIQ AHMAD, SYED TANVEER SHAH, FARID ULLAH, FAZAL GHAFOOR AND UMAIR ANWAR

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CORIANDER
ABSTRACT:
An experiment entitled ?Effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield of Coriander? was carried out at Horticulture Research Farm the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during the year 2015. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with a single factor having four treatments replicated three times. Organic fertilizer (FYM, Compost and Poultry) was subjected to all plots except control. Data were recorded on different parameters such as days to germination, number of leaves branch-1, leaf area, days to harvest, chlorophyll content, weed flora and total soluble solids. The statistical analysis of the data showed that organic fertilizer significantly affected all the studied attributes. The highest number of leaves branch-1(6.24), highest leaf area (14.95 cm2) and minimum days taken to harvest (40.75) was recorded in plants received poultry manure. The least days taken by the plant to germination (11) was recorded from plot where compost was applied. It was concluded that poultry manure among the organic fertilizer performed best and hence recommended for the growers in agro-climatic condition of Peshawar.

116-120 Download
13
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS ON TROGODERMA GRANARIUM (EVERTS) (COLEOPTERA: DERMESTIDAE)
WAQAR ISLAM, IRFAN NAZIR, ALI NOMAN, MADIHA ZAYNAB AND ZUJIAN WU

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS ON TROGODERMA GRANARIUM (EVERTS) (COLEOPTERA: DERMESTIDAE)
ABSTRACT:
Trogoderma granarium is one of the most threatening pests of stored grains, causing qualitative as well as quantitative losses. With the passage of time, the pest has acquired resistance against traditional synthetic insecticides. In search of alternative pest management approaches, extracts of Azadirachta indica, Datura stramonium and Eruca sativa were analyzed for their insecticidal activity against Trogoderma granarium under laboratory conditions. For this purpose 3, 6, 9 and 12% concentrations along with an untreated check for each botanical extract were applied. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal properties of extracts by observing their effects on mortality rate of adults and inhibitory effects at various growth stages of T. granarium such as larval development, pupation, adult emergence and latent effects upon population build up. Moreover, the losses in the grain weight due to insect feeding were also observed. The observations were recorded after 24, 96 and 144 hours, while populations build up was monitored after 30 and 60 days. Statistically analyzed results shown that D. stramonium extract shown higher mortality rate and kept larval emergence, pupation, adult emergence and population build-up of T. granarium at least levels as compared to A. indica followed by E. sativa. Grain weight loss was also recorded minimum when D. stramonium extract was applied comparative to A. indica followed by E. sativa.

121-130 Download
14
WHEAT YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE PRACTICES AND ROW SPACING
BURHAN UD DIN, MUHAMMAD SHAFI, MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM, NAWAB ALI, MUHAMMAD TAHIR AND ABDUL JALAL

WHEAT YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE PRACTICES AND ROW SPACING
ABSTRACT:
Tillage practices and row spacing could be manipulated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth, thereby maximizing sunlight, soil water use efficiency, nutrients and grain yield on sustainable basis. A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farms, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2014-15. Four tillage practices (i.e. 3 Times Chisel Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (30 cm), 3 Times Mould Board Plough + 2 Times Rotavator (25 cm),2 Times Disc Harrow + 1 Time Rotavator (20 cm),1 Time Cultivator + 1 Time Rotavator (15 cm) and six row spacing i.e. (i.e.15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 cm) were studied. Tillage practices were allotted to main plots while row spacing was assigned to sub plots. The experiment was laid down in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Tillage practices significantly affected grain and biological yield of wheat. Highest grain yield (3645 kg ha-1) and biological yield (9098 kg ha-1) was recorded from application of one Time Cultivator + one time Rotavator. Rows spacing significantly affected all parameters of wheat. Lowest lodging (25 %) was recorded from 40 cm row spacing. Highest spike weight (2.6 g), spikelet spike-1 (18.6), grains spike-1 (54) and grain weight spike-1 (2.2 g) was recorded from 40 cm row spacing. Highest biological yield (12756 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4888 kg ha-1) was recorded from 15 cm row spacing. It is concluded that minimum tillage practices and narrow row spacing of 15 cm gave higher wheat yield by suppressing weed infestation and more spike density per unit area.

131-136 Download
15
PHENOLOGY AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT FORMS OF DAIRY MANURE WITH SUPPLEMENTAL NITROGEN MANAGEMENT
WISAL AHMAD, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN, MUHAMMAD ILYAS, TARIQ SHAH, MOINULLAH, KAMRAN AZEEM, ABRAR AHMAD AND SAJID KHAN

PHENOLOGY AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT FORMS OF DAIRY MANURE WITH SUPPLEMENTAL NITROGEN MANAGEMENT
ABSTRACT:
Dairy manures being a fundamental part of sustainable farming which enhances both soil fertility and productivity by providing both macro and micro nutrients as well as soil organic matter that retains soil moisture and nutrients conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate response of different forms of dairy manure with supplemental nitrogen application timing on growth and phenology of maize. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three factors, different forms of dairy manures (fresh and composted), their levels (3, 4 and 5 t ha-1) and nitrogen application timing (full at sowing, full at V6 stage and half at sowing + half at V6 stage). The experimental results stated that among different forms of dairy manures, composted dairy manure applied at 5 t ha-1delayed days to tasseling, silking and physiological maturity as compared to fresh dairy manure. Composted dairy manure at higher level produced higher ears m-2, lengthy ears, more rows ear-1, higher grains row-1 and increase grain yield over fresh dairy manure. Among different nitrogen application timing, nitrogen applied in two splits i.e half at sowing + half at V6 stage delayed days to tasseling, silking and physiological maturity and resulted higher ears m-2, longer ears, maximum rows ear-1, more grains row-1and higher grain yield than nitrogen applied fully at sowing and V6 stage. Conclusively, application of composted dairy manures at the rate of 5 t ha-1 along with nitrogen in two splits improved phenology and growth of maize under agro-ecological condition of Peshawar.

137-146 Download
16
IN VITRO RESPONSE OF BIPOLARIS MAYDIS TO VARIOUS ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM RIFAI
HAKIM KHAN, HAROON AND MARIA

IN VITRO RESPONSE OF BIPOLARIS MAYDIS TO VARIOUS ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM RIFAI
ABSTRACT:
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum isolates against Bipolaris maydis in the Plant Pathology Department during 2009. The experiment was conducted by using Completely Randomized design. The response of different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were significantly different from one another. The radial growth of the pathogen was 10.9 mm to which isolate Telaband was applied after seven days of incubation, It was 81.8% lower than check.The overall decrease in colony growth of Bipolaris maydis by isolates of T. harzianum was 53.2 to 83.2% after fourteen days. Isolate Munda of T. harzianum reduced drastically the radial growth of Bipolaris maydis (83.2%). This was followed by isolate Telaband (81.9%).

147-150 Download
17
VARIOUS pH LEVELS AND SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS INDUCE VARIATION IN ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES IN STEVIA REBAUDIANA CALLUS
MAZHAR ALI, NAVEED AHMAD AND AMIN KHAN

VARIOUS pH LEVELS AND SUCROSE CONCENTRATIONS INDUCE VARIATION IN ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES IN STEVIA REBAUDIANA CALLUS
ABSTRACT:
The experiment entitled ?various pH levels and sucrose concentrations induce variation in antibacterial activities in Stevia rebaudiana callus? was conducted in Plant Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Plant Breading and Genetics and an association with the Department of Agriculture Chemistry, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2015. The study was carried out in Completely Randomized Design repeated three times. Ethyl acetate extract of Stevia rebaudiana callus, grown at different pH levels and sucrose concentrations were tested against two bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Callus developed at pH 4.5 showed the highest inhibitory zone (2.9 cm) against B. subtilis whereas the greater inhibitory zone (2.5 cm) was observed in callus grown at pH 6.5against S. aureus. The lesser inhibitory zones (1.9 cm and 1.5 cm) for B. subtilis and S. aureus were recorded at pH 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Concerning various sucrose concentrations, callus developed at 40 g L-1 sucrose caused the highest inhibitory zone (3.07 cm) against B. subtilis while against S. aureus the maximum inhibitory zone (2.5 cm) was observed in callus obtained at 50 g L-1 sucrose. While the inhibitory effect was minimum (2.3 cm) against B. subtilis at 10 g L-1 sucrose level, whereas, for S. aureus it was 1.5 cm at 20 g L-1. However, significant results for antibacterial activity of callus extract against B. subtilis and S. aureus was observed at pH 6.5 and 50 g L-1 of sucrose concentration. It is concluded that 50 g L-1 sucrose solution at 6.5 pH has enhanced the antibacterial potential of Stevia rebaudiana callus against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

151-157 Download
18
ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN TRANSFER OF ONION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN DISTRICT SWAT
LAILA KHURSHID, MUHAMMAD ZAFARULLAH KHAN, UROOBA PERVAIZ, AYESHA KHAN AND ASIF NAWAZ

ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN TRANSFER OF ONION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN DISTRICT SWAT
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to examine the role of agricultural extension agents in transfer of onion production technology in district Swat. The study was conducted in three villages of Tehsil Matta i.e. Baghderai, Drushkhela and Ashare. The samples of 120 respondents were selected through proportional allocation method from the sampled villages. Primary data was collected through pre-tested interview schedule. Regarding education, the illiterate farmers were 27%, while in the category of literate farmers 63% were reported. The farm size in study area was measured in acre and 27% were those having 1-5 and 6-10 acre of land holding. The results showed that 39% farmers were those who cultivate onion crop on 1-3 acre, followed by 27% who cultivate it on 4-6 acres. In the study area, only 40% respondents were aware of agricultural extension department and 60% were unaware and had no knowledge about agricultural extension department. Source of knowledge about extension department were reported by 27% respondents through the visit of extension agent, 29% were informed through media and 44% were aware due to fellow farmers about extension department. Overwhelming majority of the respondents (82%) did not visit extension office for assistance and 18% respondents replied that they visited extension office for assistance. It was concluded that main source of knowledge and awareness about onion crop of majority of farmers were ancestral, relatives and fellow farmers. It is recommended that agricultural extension department may bind their staff for regular visits to fields. Agriculture extension department may coordinate and negotiate problems and needs of farmers with other line departments.

158-164 Download

NewsLetter Sign Up !

Please enter your Email and Name to join.

Digital Newsletter

To unsubsribe please click here ».