ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2016 , Volume  2, Issue 4 (Published)
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1
EVALUATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FIBER BREAD CONTAINING WHEAT AND
RASHA MUSA OSMAN ELAWAD, LEGUME BRANS, TAJUL A. YANG, ABDEL HALIM RAHAMA AHMED, KHOGALI ELNUR AHMED ISHAG

EVALUATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FIBER BREAD CONTAINING WHEAT AND
ABSTRACT:
We evaluated the quality of conventional bread made with whole wheat flour (WWF) and highfiber leguminous bran from wheat, faba beans, chick peas, pigeon peas and soya beans. The functional, rheological and organoleptic qualities of the composite flours and the bread baked from them were investigated. The water retention capacity of the composite flours was increased significantly by adding legume brans for all blends except the wheat/faba bean bran composite flour. The bulk density of whole wheat flour was also significantly reduced by adding wheat and legume brans, affecting the rheology of the dough. Increasing the level of bran in WWF increased its water absorption and dough development time and decreased dough stability compared with WWF, except for high-bran wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed that

374-381 Download
2
HEALTH IMPACTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND NITROGEN OXIDE AT AL-TANEEM AREA, MAKKAH, KSA
ATEF M.F. MOHAMMED AND OMAR B. AHMED

HEALTH IMPACTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND NITROGEN OXIDE AT AL-TANEEM AREA, MAKKAH, KSA
ABSTRACT:
The current study discussed Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 304 2 ) concentrations in Al-Taneem, Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 September 2015 to 31 October 2015. The study showed that the mean concentrations of CO and NO 2 were 0.347 (0.162 ? 0.545 mg/m ) and 33.4 (16.3 ? 53.1 ?g/m for CO and NO 2 3 ), respectively. These levels were lower than PME standards (10 mg/m , respectively). Results showed that the inhalation dose of exposure to CO and NO concentrations during sampling period were 0.136 (0.064-0.214 mg/kg/day) for CO, 0.013 (0.006 -0.021 mg/kg/day) for NO . Furthmore, it showed that inhalation cancer risk as a result of exposure to CO and NO 2 2 concentrations during sampling period were 0.149 (0.07 - 0.235) for CO, 0.014 (0.007-0.023) for NO . Finally, results of AirQ2.2.3 model predicted that the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases as a result of exposure to concentrations of CO and NO 2 were 1238 (22-2971 case) for CO and 179 (2-362 case) for NO 2 2 in every 100,000 people. In addition, it showed that the response concentration factor (95% CI) was 0.30 (0.11-0.49%) and 0.04 (0.01-0.06%) for CO and NO concentrations, respectively, per 10 ?g/m

382-395 Download
3
BIRD DAMAGE AND CONTROL STRATEGIES IN GRAIN SORGHUM PRODUCTION
M.A. MOFOKENG AND N.G. SHARGIE

BIRD DAMAGE AND CONTROL STRATEGIES IN GRAIN SORGHUM PRODUCTION
ABSTRACT:
Sorghum is a versatile crop that is grown worldwide for food, feed, fodder and biofuel. It thrives well in marginal environments where other cereal crops fail. However, its production is hindered by abiotic and biotic stress factors. Among them, birds are a serious pest and limit grain production from sorghum. Factors such as field sizes, fields near roosting sites, planting density, weed control, choice of variety and timing of farm operations influence the ability of the birds to damage the crop plants. Nonetheless, various methods have been employed to control birds including use of chemicals, repellents, bird scaring, lethal and non-lethal methods including host plant resistance. Among the control strategies host plant resistance can be an effective method due to presence of tannins in bitter sorghum types. Emphasis needs to be placed in breeding for bird resistance to improve crop production and productivity.

396-401 Download
4
FIELD MORTALITY RESPONSE OF CABBAGE BUTTERFLY (Pieris brassicae nepalensis Doubleday) AGAINST ECOFRIENDLY MEASURES AT PAKLIHAWA, RUPANDEHI, NEPAL
SHIVA SHANKAR BHATTARAI , ANKIT SOTI , DEEPESH DUBEY , INESH TIMILSINA ,POONAM SAPKOTA AND SHARAN PANTHI

FIELD MORTALITY RESPONSE OF CABBAGE BUTTERFLY (Pieris brassicae nepalensis Doubleday) AGAINST ECOFRIENDLY MEASURES AT PAKLIHAWA, RUPANDEHI, NEPAL
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to devise the effective method for eco-friendly management of cabbage butterfly by using entomopathogens and locally available botanical extracts. The field research was conducted in the Horticulture section of Paklihawa Campus, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Siddharthanagar-1, Rupandehi, Nepal. The experiment was carried out from December, 2014 to April, 2015. The layout was carried out to fit the experiment into Randomized Complete Block Design with 7 treatments (including control) and 3 replications. The treatments were i) commercially produced Bacillus thuringensis var kurstaki ii) Beauveria bassiana iii) Lantana camara iv) Allium sativum and Capsicum v) Cow urine vi) Melia azadirach and vii) control (tap water application). Treatments were applied three times using foliar spray method. Highest mortality percentage i.e. 37.92, 46.25 and 46.42 of cabbage butterfly larvae was found in first, second and third spray of Bacillus thuringiensis treatment respectively and was found to be significant in each three sprays of treatments. Based on overall performance Bacillus thuringiensis performed better by reducing the pest population. Among botanicals Allium sativum+Capsicum was found to be superior for controlling pests. Further research on such pesticides will be valuable for the farmers in different agro-climatic locations of the country for validation.

402-407 Download
5
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE AMONG PEOPLE OF URBAN AREA IN ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD QADEER ASHRAF , PIR WAHAB AND MUHAMMAD ADEEL

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE AMONG PEOPLE OF URBAN AREA IN ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan is one of the countries more vulnerable to climate change. Increasing temperature, losses in agriculture production, floods and heavy rain fall in Pakistan is result of climate change. Climate change knowledge and awareness is very important to achieve the socio-economic development in Pakistan. Lack of knowledge and awareness is a constraint in adoption to climate change. The adequate knowledge, awareness and impact of climate change will direct the individual to join the force in minimizing risk and hazards of climate change in future. The present study was aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and perception about climate change among people of urban area. The present study was conducted in Attock city. The two union councils including union council No. 1 and union council .No.2 were selected randomly. The sample size was 379. The respondents were selected using convenience sampling. The 55.3% respondents have knowledge of climate change. The people have perception that climate change effect human health, agriculture and water. Conformity factor analysis was done to measure the convergent validity and reliability of instruments. Logistic regression model was applied to identify the determinants of knowledge about climate change. The result of logistic model shows that gender, education, monthly income and access to electronic media were determinants of climate change knowledge. The study suggests that climate change awareness is needed at local and national level to adopt climate change.

408-414 Download
6
IMPACT OF ROW SPACING AND NITROGEN PLACEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE
MEHRAN ALI , HABIB AKBAR , INAMULLAH AND SALMAN ALI

IMPACT OF ROW SPACING AND NITROGEN PLACEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Conventional planting, poor fertilizer management and improper row spacing are the major constraints in the reduction of yield and yield components of maize. A field study was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during kharif 2015, to evaluate the impact of row spacing and nitrogen placement methods on the performance of maize (Zea mays L.). The design was a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having four replications. Main plots were comprised of four row spacing (45, 55, 65 and 75 cm) and sub plots treatments were nitrogen placement i.e (control, single side of the row, both sides of the row and between the rows). Cultivated variety Pahari in plot size of 2m x 5.25m, was fertilized with nitrogen with 120 kg ha in two splits excluding control plots along with recommended rate of P. The results revealed that both row spacing and nitrogen placement had significantly affected ear length, number of grain ear Please cite this article as: Ali, M., H. Akbar, Inamullah and S. Ali. 2016. Impact of row spacing and nitrogen placement on the performance of maize. Int. J. Agri and Env. Res., 2(4): 339-345 -1 , 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. The higher grain yield (2546 kg ha -1 ) at 65cm apart and N (120 kg ha -1 ) was placed between the rows. It is concluded that sowing maize 65 cm apart and applying nitrogen (120 kg ha -1 ) in between the rows seem better for performance of maize.

415-421 Download
7
GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONION AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS
MUHAMMAD ISHFAQ KHAN , GOHAR AYUB , MOHAMMAD ILYAS AND MANZOOR AHMAD

GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONION AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
A field trail was performed at Horticulture Research Farm, The University of Agriculture PeshawarPakistan, to investigate the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and yield of onion. Randomized complete block design with 2-factors was used. Single Super Phosphate (18% P ) and Urea (46% N) were used as a source for the phosphorus and nitrogen respectively. Treatments used during the experiment were the nitrogen @ 0, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha -1 and phosphorus at the rate of 0, 60, 80 and 100 kg ha -1 respectively. Both the nitrogen and phosphorus application significantly affected all the growth parameters. Results showed that maximum values for plant height (62.33 cm), number of leaves plant 1 (10.80), leaf length (47.53 cm), bulb diameter (6.84 cm), neck diameter (2.06 cm), bulb fresh weight (147.49 g), bulb dry weight (19.29 g), bulb dry matter percentage (13.1%) and yield (22.12 tons ha ) were noted in the plots received nitrogen at 150 kg N ha -1 . Incase of phosphorus, the long stature plants (59.78 cm), more number of leaves plant -1 (10.02), leaf length (45.51 cm), bulb diameter (6.28 cm), neck diameter (1.90 cm), bulb fresh weight (131.29 g), bulb dry weight (16.89 g), and yield (19.69 tons ha ) were recorded in plots supplied with phosphorus @ 80 kg ha -1 .It was concluded that nitrogen application at rate of 125 kg ha -1 and phosphorus at rate of 80 kg ha -1 is the most desirable combination for the maximum growth and yield of the onion under the agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar.

422-432 Download
8
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LIQUID POULTRY MANURES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE
NAWAB ALI AND MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LIQUID POULTRY MANURES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Poultry manure has long been recognized the most desirable organic fertilizer. It improves soil fertility by adding both major and essential nutrients as well as soil organic matter which improve moisture and nutrient retention. The present study investigates the effectiveness of different levels of applied liquid poultry manure (LPM) on the growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L). Research was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm (ARF), The University of Agriculture Peshwar during summer season 2016. Experiment was comprised of different levels of poultry manures ( 4 tons ha -1 , 8 tons ha -1 and 10 tons ha -1 )with control in randomized complete block design replicated three times. It was observed that all the attributes were significantly affected by the application of LPM. Higherplant height (220 cm), stem diameter(29.3mm), number of leaves plant (16), ear diameter (4.99cm), ear length (17.3cm), grains ear -1 (37), thousands grain weight (256.8g),biological yield (13243 kg ha -1 ), grain yield (4986 kg ha -1 ), and harvest Index (26.4%) were obtained with the application of LPM @ 10 tons ha -1 . Maximum values for all these parameters were recorded with the application of 10 t ha -1 LPM. Therefore, LPM @ 10 tons ha -1 is concluded to be the optimum rate for achieving optimum growth and yield of maize.

433-437 Download
9
RESPONSE OF TRITICALE TO PHOSPHORUS, SULPHUR AND DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS
BABAR IQBAL, BASHIR AHMAD, INAM ULLAH, ASAD ALI KHAN, SHAZMA ANWAR, ZAR MUHAMMAD, GULZAR AHMAD, DOST MUHAMMAD AND SHEHRYAR KHAN

RESPONSE OF TRITICALE TO PHOSPHORUS, SULPHUR AND DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS
ABSTRACT:
This field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during Rabi 2013-2014 to study the response of triticale to phosphorus (P), sulphur (S) and different irrigation (I) levels. Randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement having three replications was used. A sub plot size of 5.4 m 2 having six rows of 3 m length was used. Irrigation numbers (I 1 (seedling), I 2 (seedling + tillering), I (seedling + tillering + booting)) were applied to the main plot while phosphorus (60, 90 and 120 kg ha 3 -1 ) and sulphur (10, 20 and 30 kg ha ) were kept in the sub plot. A control treatment was also included for comparison. All of the phosphorus and sulphur were applied at sowing time.Finding of the study illustrated that higher number of grains spike (72) and grain yield (4231 kg ha -1 ) were produced by irrigation applied two times (seedling + tillering) while thousand grain weight (54 g) were recorded by irrigation applied three times (seedling + tillering + booting). Plots that received phosphorus at the rate of 90 kg ha -1 produced maximum productive tillers m (292) and thousand grains weight (54 g) and grain spike -1 (70) were produced by 60 kg P ha -1 . P application at the rate of 120 kg ha -1 produced higher grain yield (4150 kg ha -1 -1 -1 -2 ). Sulphur application at the rate of 30 kg ha produced maximum thousand grain weight (54 g) and grain yield (4269 kg ha -1 ). It can be concluded from these studies that irrigation applied two times (seedling + tillering) produced higher grain yield when treated with either 90 kg P ha -1 or 20 kg S ha -1 .

438-443 Download
10
AGRICULTURE TRAININGS ARRANGED BY FARM SERVICES CENTERS AND ITS IMPACT ON FARMER?S YIELD
MUHAMMAD ZAFARULLAH KHAN, REHMAT ULLAH AND ASIF NAWAZ

AGRICULTURE TRAININGS ARRANGED BY FARM SERVICES CENTERS AND ITS IMPACT ON FARMER?S YIELD
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan has fertile lands, ideal agro-environmental conditions and dedicated agriculturists however it?sper acre yield is lower as compared to the world averages. Numerous agriculture extension strategies have so far been launched in Pakistan to bridge the gap. A new strategy Farm Services Centre (FSC) was initiated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) in 24 districts for supplying quality farm inputs to the farming community, build farmers' capacity along with its rationale utilization at farms. FSC is a form of public-private partnership. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate their performance regarding yield improvement of the farming community due to trainings arranged by FSCs. Five districts viz. Swabi, Mansehra, Dir Lower, Swat and Dera Ismail Khan were purposively selected. A sample of 80 respondents was selected from each district thus making a lump sum of 400 respondents. Data was collected through well prepared and pre-tested interview schedule. It was found that trainings arranged onAgronomic Practices, Soil Management, IPM, IDM, Water Management Practices, Food Preservation Techniques and weed management trainings were reported satisfactory by the respondents. Paired sample t-test results showed significant improvement in wheat, sugarcane, rice, maize, onion, tomato and gram yield. Results of linear regression showed highly significant linear trend among year of the registration with Farm Services Centers and yield improvement of wheat, sugarcane, rice, maize, onion, tomato and gram.It is suggested that government should take initiative for funds on account of pragmatic trainings arrangement regarding various other left practices of agriculture.

444-453 Download

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