ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2016 , Volume  2, Issue 3 (Published)
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1

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERING WITH OZONATED WATER ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BAKING QUALITY OF SUDANESE WHEAT FLOUR


Mudawi Hassan Ali, Saifeldin Mohamed Khair Abdelrahim, Khalid Abd El Rahman Gadien

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERING WITH OZONATED WATER ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BAKING QUALITY OF SUDANESE WHEAT FLOUR


ABSTRACT:

This Study was carried out on the effect of ozonated tempering on rheological properties and baking quality of two Sudanese wheat cultivars as well as to investigate its impact on the mold and yeast contamination. Two local cultivars: Debaira and Elneelain were treated with two doses of ozone (1.0 and 5.0 ppm). Rheological properties and total mold and yeast count were carried out for the two wheat cultivars. Baking quality and sensory evaluation were carried out for bread (loaf) made from the two cultivars ozonated and non-ozonated. Results indicated significant difference in the flour and bread quality of the two varieties. Both cultivars Debaira and Elneelainwere low in water absorption (62.7 and 58.8%), specific loaf volume (3.83 and 3.13 cm3/g) and extensibility (147 and150 min), respectively. Treatment of ozonated tempering of the two wheat cultivars decreased alpha amylase activity, specific loaf volume and resistance in Debaira cultivar, while it increased these in Elneelain cultivar; however, the water absorption and degree of softening values for both cultivars decreased. The results from microbiological investigation showed that ozone treatment at 5 ppm were effective against mold, yeast an A. flavus de-contamination. Generally, Debaira cultivar had better bread making qualities attributes than Elneelain cultivar.

205-211 Download
2

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF GROUND LEVEL OZONE ON AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM


Said Munir,Shazma Anwar and Mohammad Rehan

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF GROUND LEVEL OZONE ON AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM


ABSTRACT:

This study assesses the adverse impact of tropospheric ozone (O3) on agricultural crops in the UK by calculating AOT40 (ozone concentrations Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) values,  determining Relative Yield (RY) and Percent Yield Loss (%YL) using yield response models. This study is based on O3 data collected from 23 Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN) sites, over a 5 years period from 2010 to 2014. AOT40 values calculated over 3 month period (May to July) for 12 h daily light (0800 to 2000) and averaged over the most recent 5 years have exceeded the critical level (6000 µg/m3 h) in some parts of the UK. Using yield response functions RY and % YL were calculated for 4 major crops (wheat, rapeseed, potato, and sugar beet) in the UK. Highest %YL occurred in the rural areas of eastern England, where up to 7% and 12% reduction was caused in the yield of wheat and rapeseed, respectively by O3 pollution. The eastern and southeast parts of England are sunnier and are influenced by regional O3 from the polluted areas of northern Europe, therefore are subject to higher levels of O3. Similarly 2% and 5% losses were estimated in the yield of sugar beet and potato, respectively. The total estimated economical loss due to reduction in the yield of these crops caused by O3 pollution sums up to nearly £300 million per annum in the UK. 

212-224 Download
3

NUTRITIONAL AND CHEMICAL PROFILES OF Auricularia Auricular MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW


Asif Ali Khan, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Ghufrana Samin, Muhammad Asif Ali, Khurram Ziaf, Adil Khan, Waqar Karim, Anam Zahid

NUTRITIONAL AND CHEMICAL PROFILES OF Auricularia Auricular MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW


ABSTRACT:

Mushrooms are utilized globally for purpose of medicine and food and now a days are considered as good source of income due to their established world market. Various mushrooms have different nutritional and medicinal values which can be used for curing of health problems. About 14,000 species of mushrooms are known in the world in which 2,000 are safe for utilization of human consumption. Among these mushrooms, one unique mushroom is Auricularia auricular, having jelly like texture and is a renowned source of vitamins, proteins, minerals, fibers, trace elements, having the ability to low cholesterol level. Jelly mushroom is known to possess an anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti inflammatory, anti-HIV and anti-diabetic properties.

225-233 Download
4

ROLE OF PECTIN-ESTERASE TO IMPROVE THE STORAGE LIFE OF KINNOW FRUIT DURING COLD STORAGE


Ayesha Maryam, Adil Khan, Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad Jaffar Jaskani and Nazir Javed

ROLE OF PECTIN-ESTERASE TO IMPROVE THE STORAGE LIFE OF KINNOW FRUIT DURING COLD STORAGE


ABSTRACT:

Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa) is the leading commercial citrus cultivar of Pakistan. After harvesting some internal changes are started and deteriorate the fruit quality so its shelf life is less. Hence, to overcome these problems pectin-esterase is used to improve the cosmetic value and shelf life of Kinnow fruit during storage. For this purpose, Mature, healthy and disease free Kinnow mandarin fruits were harvested from the experimental orchard Square No. 9. Institute of Horticulture Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Fruits were treated with different concentration of pectin-esterase (0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 %) of each three replications then stored at 5oC with relative humidity 90-95%. Data regarding different quality parameters were analysed at different interval during storage (0 15, 45, and 60 days) such as physical parameters (Firmness, Chilling injury and Decay %,) Biochemical parameters (Vitamin-C, TSS, TA) and phytochemical parameters (Total antioxidant). The results showed that treatment 2% pectin-esterase (PE) showed 10% decay after 60 days of storage. Minimum chilling injury (2.33%) was also observed in fruits of same fruits treatment. 2% PE treatment significantly maintained the higher fruit firmness (2.413 N) throughout the storage compared to other treatments.  However, TSS (12.5 ºBrix) and TA (12.5) were highest in 2% PE after 60-days storage than control fruit. PE treatment with 2% exhibited significantly increased in AO (31.193%) on 60-days storage. The Kinnow stored under these condition retained the acceptable quality above 60 days. 

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5

INTEGRATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN FERTILIZERS FOR ENHANCING YIELD AND YIELD HALLMARKS OF MAIZE


Muhammad Bilal, Akhlaq Ahmad, Ali Shan and Abdul Jalal

INTEGRATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN FERTILIZERS FOR ENHANCING YIELD AND YIELD HALLMARKS OF MAIZE


ABSTRACT:

Integrated management of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in crop production for bringing sustainability and ensuring sound health of the soil is indispensible in modern agriculture. To probe the above assumption, a study was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design having three replications. Three nitrogen sources farmyard manure (FYM), mushroom spent (MS) and urea were taken in the study. The treatments were consisted of control, MS alone, FYM alone, urea alone, 50% MS + 50% FYM, 50% FYM + 50% urea, 50% urea + 50% MS and 33.3% urea + 33.3% MS + 33.3% FYM. Plot size was kept 5m x 4.5m. Maize variety Azam was used as a test crop. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 from all the sources. The treatment 50% Urea + 50% FYM remarkably contributed in terms of plant height (246.8 cm), ears per m2 (8), grains per ear (517.3), 1000 seed weight (296.7 g), biological yield (11460 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4113.3 kg ha-1). On the basis of these results, it was concluded that application of nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 applied as 50% urea + 50% FYM can appreciably aggrandize the growth and yield indices of maize crop.

248-255 Download
6

THE GOOD ABOUT Morchella Esculenta MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW


Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Asif Ali Khan, Ghufrana Samin, Muhammad Asif Ali,Khurram Ziaf, Adil Khan, Waqar Karim and Fozia

THE GOOD ABOUT Morchella Esculenta MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW


ABSTRACT:

Morchella Esculenta is one of the expensive mushrooms throughout the globe due to its high nutritional and medicinal value. Naturally it grown in different locations of Pakistan i.e. Swat, Miandam, Kalam, MalamJabba, Parona, Kokaria, Jambile and Madian etc.Traditionally Morchella esculentais used as medicines in different countries like Japan, China and Malaysia for healing of different diseases and is famous due to its unique flavor and taste.

256-262 Download
7

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN AND SEED RATES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF TRITICALE


Awais Khan, Amanullah Jan, Muhammad Mehran Anjum, Nawab Ali, Muhammad Aatif and Muhammad Hamid

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN AND SEED RATES ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF TRITICALE


ABSTRACT:

A field experiment on the effect of seed rates (80, 100, 120and 140 kg ha-1) and nitrogen levels (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) on Triticale was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm the University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2014-2015.The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having four replications. Seed rates was allowed to main plot while N levels were kept in sub plot. Sub plot size was 1.5m ×3m. Row to row distance of 30 cm was maintained. Seed rate had significantly affected emergence m-2, plant height, spikes m-2, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield of triticale. Plots seeded with 140 kg ha-1 had significantly higher plant height (98cm), grains spike-1(48), thousand grain weight (48 g), grain yield (1892 kg ha-1) and biological yield (4616 kg ha-1) as compared with other seed rates. The emergence m-2 of the seed rate of 120 kg ha-1 was at par with those of 140 kg ha-1.The effect of seed rate on days to emergence, days to maturity and harvest index (%) was found non-significant. The effect of N level was not significant on days to emergence, days to maturity and harvest index  but was significant on the other parameters. Plots applied with 150 kg N ha-1 had taller plants (96cm), delayed  maturity (150 days), grains spike-1 (46), and thousand grain weight (48 g), while the  grain yield (1844 kg ha-1) and biological yield (4139 kg ha-1) was at par with those of 90 and 120 kg N ha-1.Plots without N application had significantly lower grain yield (1473 kg ha-1), biological yield (3415 kg ha-1) and thousand grain weight (45g) than N treated plot of Triticale. Sowing of triticale at seed rate of 140 kg ha-1 and 90 kg ha-1 N is recommended for higher yield of triticale in Peshawar.

263-273 Download
8

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CANOLA AFFECTED BY SULPHUR LEVELS AND APPLICATION TIMINGS


Muhammad Mehran Anjum, Nawab Ali, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Gul Roz Khan and Muhammad Owais Iqbal

YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF CANOLA AFFECTED BY SULPHUR LEVELS AND APPLICATION TIMINGS


ABSTRACT:

Canola (Brassica napus L.) a conventional oil seed crop, as winter season crop which can be successfully grown in Pakistan. Present research was conducted to study yield of canola as affected by different sulphur (S) levels and application timings” at Agronomy Res. Farm, Univ. of Agriculture, Peshawar in season 2014-15. Canola crop was sown under sulphur levels of 30 and 40 (kg S ha-1) with three timing of S application (full at sowing, split application and rosette stage). Experiment was designed in randomized complete block design replicated four times. Results showed that more number of pods plant-1 (278), grain pod-1 (21), thousand grain weight (4.1 g), biological yield (3911 kg ha-1), grain yield (1317 kg ha-1) and harvest index (29 %) were significantly affected by different sulphur levels and application timings. Data revealed that equal split application at rate of 30 kg S ha¯¹ was more efficient as compared with full at sowing or rosette stage. From this study, it was concluded that yield and yield components were substantially improved by the split application of S at 30 kg S ha¯¹ at sowing and rosette stage. 

274-281 Download
9

EFFECT OF SULPHUR FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF BRASSICA NAPUS


Shah Khalid, M.Z. Afridi, F. Munsif, Imranuddin and Nadia

EFFECT OF SULPHUR FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF BRASSICA NAPUS


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Ammonium sulphate foliar application levels on pod characteristics of Brassica napusat Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan during Rabi season 2014-15.The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The crop was treated with three levels of Ammonium sulphate foliar application at the rate of 0.4%, 0.6% and 02% (water solution) along with one control (water only) at the pods initiation stage. The results indicated that the application of 2 % ammonium sulphatesignificantly improved pods plant‑1 (98), grains pod-1 (37) and productive pods plant‑1(55) as compere to control (88, 27 and 46 respectively). Application of 2 % ammonium sulphate enhanced in 1/3rdlower portion, productive pods (20), pod length (5.5cm), grains pod-1 (25), grain weight (7.32g). The application of 2 % AS improved in 1/3rdmiddle portion, productive pods (19), grains pod-1 (21) and grain weight (5.82g). The application of 2 %AS increased in 1/3rdupper portion, productive pods (15), grains pod-1 (14), grain weight (4.2g), seed yield (kg ha-1) from 1009 (control) to 1336 kg ha-1 (2 %AS) and biological yield 2714 kg ha-1 (control) to 3313 kg ha-1 (2% AS).From the results it can be concluded that the application of 2% AS water solution foliar application at pod initiation stage enhanced Brassica napus yield, furthermore the upper portion, which are mostly poor in production shown a greater improvement inproductive pods, grains pod-1, grain weight, leaded to higher yield of Brassica napus.

282-287 Download
10

STUDY OF FRESH WATER ALGAE IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN


Tabassum Yaseen, Mian Fazli Jaleel and Fazli Malik Sarim

STUDY OF FRESH WATER ALGAE IN DISTRICT CHARSADDA, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Ammonium sulphate foliar application levels on pod characteristics of Brassica napusat Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan during Rabi season 2014-15.The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. The crop was treated with three levels of Ammonium sulphate foliar application at the rate of 0.4%, 0.6% and 02% (water solution) along with one control (water only) at the pods initiation stage. The results indicated that the application of 2 % ammonium sulphatesignificantly improved pods plant‑1 (98), grains pod-1 (37) and productive pods plant‑1(55) as compere to control (88, 27 and 46 respectively). Application of 2 % ammonium sulphate enhanced in 1/3rdlower portion, productive pods (20), pod length (5.5cm), grains pod-1 (25), grain weight (7.32g). The application of 2 % AS improved in 1/3rdmiddle portion, productive pods (19), grains pod-1 (21) and grain weight (5.82g). The application of 2 %AS increased in 1/3rdupper portion, productive pods (15), grains pod-1 (14), grain weight (4.2g), seed yield (kg ha-1) from 1009 (control) to 1336 kg ha-1 (2 %AS) and biological yield 2714 kg ha-1 (control) to 3313 kg ha-1 (2% AS).From the results it can be concluded that the application of 2% AS water solution foliar application at pod initiation stage enhanced Brassica napus yield, furthermore the upper portion, which are mostly poor in production shown a greater improvement inproductive pods, grains pod-1, grain weight, leaded to higher yield of Brassica napus.

288-294 Download

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