ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2016 , Volume  2, Issue 2 (Published)
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1
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF SOME NITROGENOUS DERIVATIVES OF GUM ARABIC AS PLANT GROWTH PROMOTERS
Mudawi Hassan Ali, Yassin Mohammed Abdelhamid, Saifeldin Mohammed Khair Abdelrahim

PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF SOME NITROGENOUS DERIVATIVES OF GUM ARABIC AS PLANT GROWTH PROMOTERS
ABSTRACT:

The study was conducted to determine the effect of adding gum and some of their nitrogenous derivatives to the Winka seeds. Derivatives of arabic acid, arabamide, ammonium arabate, derivative of high protein and derivative of low protein were prepared. The physiochemical parameters for these derivatives were examined and comparisons were carried out. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the derivatives in specific rotation and in emulsifying stability. However, there were significant differences between these derivatives in pH, except between arabamide and aminoarabate with arabic acid. There were significant differences between all derivatives in nitrogen (protein content). These derivatives were added in concentration of either 5% or 10% to pots containing Winka seeds while to other pots only water was added. The experiment duration was 10 weeks. The results showed that there was significant difference in the number of plant leaves which were treated with these derivatives. The highest number of leaves was reported for plants treated with arabic acid (C = 5% and C = 10%). There was significant difference in plant height, the highest plant height was reported for plants to which arabic acid (C= 5% and C = 10%) were added. The shortest height was reported for plant to which only water was added. Concerning the dry matter production, significant differences between these treatments were noticed. The highest value was reported for plants which were treated with arabic acid (C = 5% and C = 10%). The lowest value was reported for plant to which only water was added.  

106-115 Download
2
AIR POLLUTION IN SAUDI ARABIA - SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PM10 IN MAKKAH (KSA)
Atef M.F. Mohammed, Turki M. Habeebullah and Essam A. Morsy

AIR POLLUTION IN SAUDI ARABIA - SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PM10 IN MAKKAH (KSA)
ABSTRACT:

The current study intends to monitor and map Particulate Matter (PM), focusing on PM with aerodynamc diameter upto 10 micron (PM10) during Hajj season 1436H (September 2015) at six locations (Shebeka, Haram, Masfalla, Azizaih, Awali, Mina district) in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected using a portable device PM Dustmeter AEROCET-531, in which the measuring locations were determined using the global positioning system (GPS). PM10 levels ranged between 205-281, 236-391, 210-255, 199-288, 56-113, and 122-190 µg/m3 at Shebeka, Haram, Masfalla, Azizaih, Awali, Mina districts, respectively. The spatial variation analysis of  PM10 at various locations showed that the mean concentrations can be aranged in the following order: Haram > Azizaih > Shebeka > Masfalah > Mina > Awali districts. Contour maps showed that generally PM10 concerntrations were higher in the the north western part of Makkah than in the south-eastern part. It should be noted that high concentrations of PM10 in various locations may be attributed to the intensity of construction activities, road traffic activities, and urban development in the central area.

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3
ECONOMICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABILITY IN AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT TO ACHIEVE PAKISTAN VISION 2025
Mabroor Hassan, Khawaja Waqar Ali, Farrukh Raza Amin, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Mohsin Abbas

ECONOMICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABILITY IN AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT TO ACHIEVE PAKISTAN VISION 2025
ABSTRACT:

The agriculture sector is the back-bone of Pakistan and sources of employment for 45% people of low income population. The objective of this review was to analyze the economic perspective of sustainability in agriculture and environment of Pakistan. Pakistan ranks 77 in 109 countries on the Global food security index 2015 but its increase in the growth rate of agriculture is very slow, while resource consumption is equivalent to many developing and developed counties resulting in lack of sustainability in agriculture of Pakistan. Poorly managed canal irrigation system and livestock, excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers is deteriorating the public health, environment and sustainability. In Pakistan, poor efficiency of water, flood irrigation system, traditional cultivation techniques, excessive and improper use of pesticides and fertilizers, poor drainage of canal irrigation system, energy crises and poor governance are the challenges to attain environmental and agricultural sustainability. Therefore, a comprehensive policy, strong strategy and good governance at all levels, for efficient use of water and energy, proper use of pesticides, land management and modernization in cultivation techniques, is required for improvement in productivity and sustainability to achieve Pakistan Vision 2025.

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4
TOLERANCE MECHANISM AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS UNDER HEAVY METALS STRESS
Shameem Raja, Asif Ali Khan and Masooma Naseer Cheema

TOLERANCE MECHANISM AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS UNDER HEAVY METALS STRESS
ABSTRACT:

Escalating population is the potential cause for the increase in environmental pollution which ultimately affects human health as well as reduction in crops yield. One of the leading pollutants of human activity is the heavy metals. A number of essential i-e Cobalt (Co), Iron (Fe), Maganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) as well as non-essential heavy metals i-e Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg) exist. Elevated concentration of heavy metals consequences in change of physiological processes such as inhibition of photosynthesis, enzyme activity, plant growth, lower uptake of water and nutrients due to inhibition of root growth etc. FAO have established secure limits of heavy metals for human and crops. Plants have developed tolerance mechanism against high concentration of heavy metals  e.g. root exudates, binding with cell wall, expression of stress responsive genes and proteins, chelation of metals through organic acids and translocation  into vacuoles or out of the cells. Different remediation techniques such as Farm yard manure (FYM), lime application, phytoremediation, soil dilution with clean soil, deep plugging, transgenic plants can be used as elucidation to this problem.

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5
ENHANCING MAIZE YIELD THROUGH INTEGRATION OF  ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN FERTILIZERS
Muhammad Bilal, Akhlaq Ahmad, Ali Shan and Abdul Jalal

ENHANCING MAIZE YIELD THROUGH INTEGRATION OF  ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN FERTILIZERS
ABSTRACT:

Integrated management of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in crop production for bringing sustainability and ensuring sound health of the soil is indispensible in modern agriculture. To probe the above assumption, a study was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design having three replications. Three nitrogen sources farmyard manure (FYM), mushroom spent (MS) and urea were taken in the study. The treatments were consisted of control, MS alone, FYM alone, urea alone, 50% MS + 50% FYM, 50% FYM + 50% urea, 50% urea + 50% MS and 33.3% urea + 33.3% MS + 33.3% FYM. Plot size was kept 5m x 4.5m. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 from all the sources to Maize Cv Azam . The results of the study revealed that the integration of 50% FYM with 50% Urea remarkably contributed in terms of plant height (246.8 cm), ears m-2 (8), grains ear-1 (517.3), 1000 grain weight (296.7 g), biological yield (11460 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4113.3 kg ha-1). It was concluded that application of nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 applied as 50% urea + 50% FYM can appreciably enhance the growth and yield indices of maize crop.

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6
INFLUENCE OF ZINC AS SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA (Abelmoschus Esculentus L.)
Muhammad Sajid, Adil Hussain, Abdur Rab, Syed Tanveer Shah and  Ibadullah Jan

INFLUENCE OF ZINC AS SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA (Abelmoschus Esculentus L.)
ABSTRACT:

An experiment was carried out at New Developmental Farm (NDF) Horticulture section Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural University Peshawar, during summer 2011 to study the influence of zinc as soil and foliar application on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement with three replications. Methods of zinc application (soil application and foliar application) were assigned to main plots whereas, zinc levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg ha-1) subjected to sub plots. The data on days to 50 % flowering, plant height (cm), number of leaves plant-1, number of branches plant-1 and total pod yield (tones ha-1) was significantly increased by different methods of zinc application. Soil application of zinc gave more number of days (51.53) to 50 % flowering, whereas, more plant height (168.27 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (29.20), number of branches plant-1 (3.46) and total fresh pod yield (13.47 tones ha-1) was recorded in foliar method of zinc application. A significant response to various levels of zinc was also observed for most of vegetative and reproductive attributes of okra. However, the application of Zn at the rate of 2 kg ha-1 showed more plant  height (177.40 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (34.83), number of branches plant-1 (4.63) and total pod yield ha-1 (14.81 tons). More number of days (51.17) to 50% flowering was observed in untreated plants and in plants fertilized with zinc at 4 kg ha-1. It is concluded from experimental results that 2 kg ha-1 zinc when applied as a foliar spray resulted in higher fresh pod production of okra under the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar.

162-167 Download
7
COMBINE APPLICATION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FOR IMPROVING GARLIC PRODUCTIVITY
Noor Habib Khan, Mazullah Khan, Muhammad Junaid, Iqbal Hussain and Javed Rahman

COMBINE APPLICATION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FOR IMPROVING GARLIC PRODUCTIVITY
ABSTRACT:

Garlic (Allium sativum) known for its medicinal values, is an important vegetable in the family Alliaceae. High yield of garlic depends on balance use of fertilizer while existing fertilizer use of farmers is below recommended level and hence appropriate fertilizer management is the major limited factor accounted for lower productivity of garlic. This experiment has been carried out in randomized complete block designwith aim to find out the balance dose of NPK fertilizer kg ha-1i.e. 90:90:75, 100:100:120, 60:60:45 and control treatment for garlic.Significant effect of leaf area, bulb weight and yield has been recorded over control treatment while plant height, number of leaf plant-1, stem diameter, number of cloves bulb-1 and single clove weight were not affected by fertilizer application.It is concluded that application of NPK at rate of 90:90:75 kg ha-1 increased yield by 33 % over control under agro-ecological condition of Swat Mingora.

168-173 Download
8
Evaluation and adaptation of sorghum genotypes for their performance under agro-ecological condition of Peshawar Valley
SYED JUNAID AHMAD, FAZAL MUNSIF, TARIQ JAN, IKRAM ULLAH, M. Z AFRIDI AND NUMAN ALI

Evaluation and adaptation of sorghum genotypes for their performance under agro-ecological condition of Peshawar Valley
ABSTRACT:

In order to identifythe adaptability of sorghum genotypes, received from National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar during summer 2015. The Experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Perusal of the data showed that sorghum genotypes differed significantly for plant height, leaf area, number of leaves plant-1, green fodder yield and dry matter yield of sorghum. The genotypes DS-75, YSS-98 and DS-97 attained higher plant height (284, 270 and 249 cm, respectively) and leaf area (357, 276 and 267 cm, respectively). The genotypes DS-97, Johar and PK SS-2 had more number of leaves tiller-1 (14.4, 14.2 and 13.4, respectively) while greater green fodder yield was produced by PK SS-2, YSS-98 and Ds-75 (63.7, 63.4 and 62.2 t ha-1) while dry matter yield was higher for DS-75, Ghiza-3 and YSS-98 (30.3, 26.9 and 26.3 t ha-1).  It is concluded from the study that sorghum genotypes PK SS-2, YSS-98 and Ds-75 are due to its higher production recommended for cultivation in the agro-ecological condition of Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

174-180 Download
9
ADAPTABILITY OF TOMATO ADVANCE LINES IN TEMPERATE CLIMATE OF SWAT VALLEY
Sajid Khan, Noor Habib Khan, Iqbal hussain, Ziaullah, NisarNaeem and Javed Rahman

ADAPTABILITY OF TOMATO ADVANCE LINES IN TEMPERATE CLIMATE OF SWAT VALLEY
ABSTRACT:
Integrated management of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in crop production for bringing sustainability and ensuring sound health of the soil is indispensible in modern agriculture. To probe the above assumption, a study was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design having three replications. Three nitrogen sources farmyard manure (FYM), mushroom spent (MS) and urea were taken in the study. The treatments were consisted of control, MS alone, FYM alone, urea alone, 50% MS + 50% FYM, 50% FYM + 50% urea, 50% urea + 50% MS and 33.3% urea + 33.3% MS + 33.3% FYM. Plot size was kept 5m x 4.5m. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 from all the sources to Maize Cv  Azam . The results of the study revealed that the integration of 50% FYM with  50% Urea remarkably contributed in terms of plant height (246.8 cm), ears m-2 (8), grains  ear-1 (517.3), 1000 grain  weight (296.7 g), biological yield (11460 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4113.3 kg ha-1). It was concluded that application of nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 applied as 50% urea + 50% FYM can appreciably enhance  the growth and yield indices of maize crop.

181-187 Download
10
ETHNO-MEDICINAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF  VILLAGE HARICHAND, DISTRICT CHARSADDA KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN
Fayaz Asad  and  Tabassum yaseen

ETHNO-MEDICINAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF  VILLAGE HARICHAND, DISTRICT CHARSADDA KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:

Plants are used locally for many purposes especially in rural areas as medicines. In Village Harichand the people mostly use the plants as healing agents to cure their illnesses. As  there are no informations on ethnobotanical studies on the researched area therefore, the results of the present study would be useful in providing a base line information to forth coming researchers, as no work has been done in the research area. The data was recorded using open structured questionnaire. Interviews and discussion were made with local people and market survey of the local available plants were made. The results consist of 61 species belonging to 35 families in which 14 plants were used as astringent, 8 were laxative, 7 were diuretic and 6 plants each were used as ant diabetic, stomachic, and as expectorant. The local community was able to recognize the plant and their proper use. The people were very cooperative in sharing the knowledge of plant uses. Mostly the old people have the knowledge of plants to treat various diseases. The local community is well aware of the change in the local vegetation and this is because of low or no education of the collectors and overgrazing. There is a dire need to document the valuable knowledge of the medicinal plants in the research area. The area have rich medicinal plants flora and require proper management to reduce the deforestation threats. This study contribute to the current status of traditional medicinal knowledge in Village Harichand, District Charsadda.

188-200 Download
11

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