ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2016 , Volume  2, Issue 1 (Published)
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1

REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND HEALTH RISKS AT MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR WORKSHOPS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR SAUDI ARABIA


Ijaz Ahmad, Mohammad Rehan, Mansour A. Balkhyour, Mohsin Abbas, Jalal M. Basahi, Talal Almeelbi, Iqbal M.I. Ismail

REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND HEALTH RISKS AT MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR WORKSHOPS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR SAUDI ARABIA


ABSTRACT:

The increasing population, urbanization and industrial growth are causing serious environmental challenges including air pollution worldwide. According to WHO, the indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure has caused around 7 million deaths globally only in 2012. The major air pollution sources include transportation and petrochemical based industry. Motor vehicle repair workshops (MVRW) pose many environmental as well as occupational health challenges. Workers safety and protection at workplace has been a great concern for employees, employers, governments and the entire society for years. This review highlights the prominent air pollutants and health and safety challenges at MVRW. Many scientific articles studying pollutants that are detrimental to health e.g. benzene, PAHs, VOCs, heavy metals, PM, NOx and SOx are reviewed here. The national and international environmental legislations and health and safety standards by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) Saudi Arabia have been mentioned and compared for air quality both outdoor and in occupational environment. Latest developments in ambient air pollution monitoring and occupational personals health risk assessment methods and strategies have also been reviewed coherently, including the prominent physical, chemical, biological, musculoskeletal and accidental safety hazards at MVRW. The current environmental challenges and perspectives for Saudi Arabia in terms of both ambient air pollution as well as in occupational settings are also discussed. The review ends with identifying gaps and limitations in monitoring and legislation in the subject area, and suggesting the way forward for Saudi Arabia including further research and development needed in the subject area.

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2

APPLICATION OF ADMS-URBAN IN THE HOLY CITY OF MAKKAH – MODELLING PARTICULATE MATTER (PART-2)


Said Munir, Turki M.A. Habeebullah, Safwat S. Gabr, Essam A. Morsey, Atef M.F. Mohammed, Waleed Abou EL-Saoud

APPLICATION OF ADMS-URBAN IN THE HOLY CITY OF MAKKAH – MODELLING PARTICULATE MATTER (PART-2)


ABSTRACT:

Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) in urban areas and at roadside locations has emerged as a growing concern worldwide in terms of its negative impacts on human health, vegetation and ecosystems. The smaller the particles, the more hazardous they are as they can penetrate deeper into the respiratory system. As a part of arid region, Makkah experiences low rainfall, high temperature, and frequent sand storms, which are potentially positive contributing factors to the high levels of PM. In this paper the emissions of fine PM with aerodynamic diameter up to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) from the burning of natural gas, petrol and diesel are modelled in Makkah for year 2015, applying Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban). Natural gas is mostly consumed in residential houses and restaurants, whereas petrol and diesel are predominantly used for road traffic and electricity generation. The highest amount of PM2.5 (tons) was emitted by the combustion of diesel for electricity generation (312936), followed by diesel used in heavy duty vehicles (162), petrol used in light duty vehicles (45) and natural gas (< 1). ADMS-Urban requires detailed data of road traffic counts, fleet composition and vehicle speed, which were not available in Makkah, therefore PM2.5 emission sources were input as grid sources into the model. The outputs of ADMS-Urban are presented as contour maps for various emissions and meteorological scenarios. ADMS-Urban model is run for the first time to model the levels of PM2.5 in Makkah, which will help in determining the emission sources and lead to better air quality management in Makkah. 

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3

ROLE OF SALICYLIC ACID IN IMPROVING GROWTH, NUTRIENTS UPTAKE AND CADMIUM ACCUMULATION IN CALLUS TISSUE OF BASMATI RICE UNDER CADMIUM STRESS


Riffat Nasim Fatima and Farrukh Javed

ROLE OF SALICYLIC ACID IN IMPROVING GROWTH, NUTRIENTS UPTAKE AND CADMIUM ACCUMULATION IN CALLUS TISSUE OF BASMATI RICE UNDER CADMIUM STRESS


ABSTRACT:

The present study was conducted to investigate the ameliorative effect of salicylic acid under cadmium stress in callus tissues of basmati rice. One month old calli of four basmati rice genotypes (Basmati-198, Basmati-2000, Basmati-370 and Kashmir Basmati) were subjected to various levels of CdCl2 with or without salicylic acid. Cadmium inhibited callus relative growth rate (RGR-fresh), callus dry weight and, macro- and micro-nutrients. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) also reduced at all levels expect at 100 µM. Application of salicylic acid reduced adverse effects of cadmium and improved tolerance to cadmium stress by enhancing callus RGR-fresh, dry weight and mineral nutrients. 

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4

IN VIVO STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND FECUNDITY OF FEMALE AEDES ALBOPICTUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)


Muhammad Salman Hameed,Muhammad Ahsan, Nazeer Ahmed, Saif-Ur-Rehman, Zelle Huma, Mubasher Hussain and Saeed Ahmed

IN VIVO STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND FECUNDITY OF FEMALE AEDES ALBOPICTUS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)


ABSTRACT:

Aedes albopictus play a vital role in spreading disease such as dengue fever. Now day’s dengue virus had become a serious problem for human life in Pakistan. Aedes albopictus is one of vector of dengue virus. There is temperature dependent development of Aedesalbopictus population. Temperature fluctuation has great effect on developmental stages of Aedes albopictus. The temperature requirement for embryonic development is 25°C  to 35°C  and relative humidity 60 to 70%. My research program is to study the effect of temperature on larval instar, pupal development and fecundity of female Aedes albopictus under laboratory conditions. However increases in temperature showed direct effects on developmental speed of Aedes spp. and reduced the population. With the help of fluctuations in temperature we can control the vector population and can stop these viral diseases to protect the human life. The data of mortality at developmental stages of Aedes albopictus under temperature fluctuation will be collected and will be subjected to standard statistical analysis to find out the most efficient treatment.

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5

FERTILITY MANAGEMENT FOR THE GROWTH & PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN


Muhammad Noman Baloch, Muhammad Saleem Jilani, Muhammad Iqbal, Kashif Waseem, Saeed Ahmed and Nazeer Ahmed

FERTILITY MANAGEMENT FOR THE GROWTH & PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN


ABSTRACT:

This experiment was carried out in the research area of Agricultural Faculty, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan to determine the best nutritional growing media for the growth and development of garlic. There were total fifteen treatments; each treatment was replicated for three times i.e. for each treatment three pots were used for seeding of cloves, each pot containing four cloves. Thus a total of 45 pots were used and a total of 180 cloves were sown. This study revealed that T2 (FYM) differed significantly from all other treatments and remained the best media number of leaves plant-1, leaf length, number of cloves per garlic, diameter of garlic, length of cloves, diameter of cloves and weight of garlic. However T2 (FYM) was statistically same to T3 (PM) for all parameters except weight of garlic. Full dose of FYM proved to be the best regarding garlic production, followed by full dose of T3 (PM) which was the second best media. Half dose of both FYM + PM (T8) resulted better after T3, followed by T10 (PM + Silt loam soil). The lowest most results, in all developmental stages, were shown by T5 (FYM + Clay loam soil), T4 (Silt loam soil), T7 (Silt loam soil + Clay loam soil) and T1 (Clay loam soil) respectively. Full dose of FYM proved to be the best regarding garlic production. It was succeed by full dose of Poultry manure, half dose of PM + half dose of FYM & half dose of PM + half dose of Silt loam soil. It was concluded that FYM excelled all other treatments. For achieving higher production of garlic, either FYM or PM should be applied at its recommended rate for getting higher garlic yield.

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6

EVALUATION OF PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PESHAWAR VALLEY


Numan Ali, Tariq Jan, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Fazal Munsif and Muhammad Saeed

EVALUATION OF PHONOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OAT GENOTYPES GROWN UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PESHAWAR VALLEY


ABSTRACT:

Fodders are the main source of animal feed in Peshawar regionhowever, the yield per acre is still far below than its potential yield. Considering such a gloomy picture in the region, field trial was initiated at Agriculture Research InstituteTarnab, Peshawar. Oat genotypes (Ck-1, F-411, Kalash, Sargoda-1, Domount, Sargoda Oat-2011, No-632, Nz-0034, No-663, Canadian, NARC Oat, 07-Cot-008 and Apsi-1) were compared for growth characteristics during the year 2014-15. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications with a plot of size 1.8 × 6 m. The genotypes differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) for growth parameters. Findings of the study indicated that the genotype “Kalash” produced significantly higher crop stand (184.02 plants m-2) and root shoot ratio (0.14). Check variety NARC produced higher number of leaves plant-1(6.3) which was similar with that of genotype “Domount”, and “Nz-0034” and flowered earlier as compared to all other genotypes. Genotype “Domount” attained longer height (133.1 cm) while genotype “Nz-0034” had higher number of tiller plant-1. Keeping in view the growth performance of oats genotypes, “Kalash, “NARC Oat”, “Domount”, and “Nz-0034” should be grown for higher productivity under the condition of Peshawar-Pakistan.

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7

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT HYBRIDS OF OKRA FOR IMPROVED TRAITS UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PESHAWAR


MUHAMMAD ADIL JAMAL, AZMAT ALI AWAN AND ASIF ALI KHAN

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT HYBRIDS OF OKRA FOR IMPROVED TRAITS UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF PESHAWAR


ABSTRACT:

An experiment “Performance of different cultivars (hybrids) of Okra in Peshawar Tarnab” was conducted at “Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar” during Summer Season 2012. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design having three replications. The experiment consisted of five hybrids of Okra i.e., Arba Anamibia, Makhmali, Shagun, Nazia F1 and Pusa Sawami. The seeds of different cultivars were sown in field during first week of May, 2008. Normal cultural practices like hoeing, irrigation and weeding was done regularly and uniformly to all the treatments of the experiments. Data were recorded on plant height, leaf length, leaf width, stem thickness, petiole length, fruit length and fruit diameter. Different hybrids significantly affected plant height, leaf length, leaf width stem thickness, petiole length, fruit length and fruit diameter of Okra. Maximum plant height was recorded by hybrid Nazia F1 (58.56 cm) whereas Shagun showed minimum (42.60 cm) plant height. Maximum leaf length was observed in cultivator Makhmali (15.73 cm) whereas Arba Anamebia resulted in minimum (14.46) leaf length. Hybrid Arba Anamebia showed maximum leaf width (12.93 cm) while Pusa Swami resulted minimum leaf width (10.63 cm). Maximum stem thickness was recorded by hybrid Nazia F1 (1.62) while minimum stem thickness was observed in Arba Anamebia (1.40 cm). Both Arba Anamebia and Makhmali (17.13 cm) resulted in maximum petiole length, while minimum petiole length (14.13 cm) was recorded by Pusa Sawami. It is concluded that hybrid Makhmali performed better in fruit diameter, fruit length, leaf length and leaf width than the other hybrids tested and hence recommended in the agro ecological condition of Peshawar valley.

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8

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF MUNGBEAN TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POTASSIUM


Fida Hussain, Mahmooda Buriro, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani, Saeed Ahmed, Saif-Ur-Rehman, Nazeer Ahmed and Zelle Huma

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSE OF MUNGBEAN TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POTASSIUM


ABSTRACT:

A field trial was conducted during 2012 to assess the growth and yield response of mungbean to various potash levels. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design having three replication at Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The performance of two mungbean varieties (Mung-06 and NM-92) was evaluated against five potassium levels ([control, without K], 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1). The results revealed that all the growth and yield traits of mungbean varieties were significantly (P<0.05) affected by potash levels. Mungbean variety NM-92 showed better performance than Mung-06 with seed germination (11.93 m-2), plant height (44.40 cm), branches plant-1(12.79), pods plant-1(48.40), seeds plant-1(281.42), seed weight plant-1(15.22 g), seed index (37.14 g), seed yield (1802 kg ha-1), biological yield (4371.68 kg ha-1) and harvest index (41.71%). On the other hand, variety Mung-06 ranked 2nd with for the studied traits. The effect of potash levels on mungbean indicated that the mungbean crop fertilized with 125 kg ha-1 potash in addition to recommended rates of N and P,  had higher number of seeds germinated (3.50 m-2),   plant height (45.50 cm), branches plant-1 (13.22), pods plant-1(49.60), seeds plant-1(290.44), seed weight plant-1(15.55 g), seed index (39.27 g), seed yield (1869.90 kg ha-1), biological yield(4826.40 kg ha-1) and harvest index(38.74%) followed by the plots supplied with 100 kg ha-1 potash However, mungbean given 75 and 50 kg ha-1 and control ranked 3rd, 4th and 5th, respectively on the basis of seed yield kg ha-1. It was concluded that higher yield was produced by potash application at 125 kg ha-1 which was statistically non-significant with lower level of 100 kg ha-1 potash and hence, 100 kg K ha-1 proved to be an optimum potash level for achieving economically higher seed yields in mungbean.

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9

INFLUENCE OF PINCHING INTENSITY AND INCREMENTAL NITROGEN APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA(Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench)


Naveed Ahmad, Abdur Rab, Muhammad Sajid,  Zahid Ali and Kawsar Ali

INFLUENCE OF PINCHING INTENSITY AND INCREMENTAL NITROGEN APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA(Abelmoschus esculentus L.Moench)


ABSTRACT:

The influence of pinching intensity and incremental nitrogen application on growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) was investigated agro climatic conditions Peshawar during summer, 2012. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Five  nitrogen treatments (Standard Nitrogen Dose of 120 kg ha-1 was applied in 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 split doses) and three pinching types (No pinching, Single pinching and Double pinching) respectively. The results revealed that splitting nitrogen dose and pinching types affected all the study parameters significantly. Interactions between N x P were also significant for all parameters. Plants supplied with mineral nitrogen in six split doses had the maximum number of primary (2.80) and secondary branches (2.32) plant-1. Similarly, single pinched plants were recorded with larger canopy spread (68.86 cm), the highest average pod length (10.67 cm), number of pickings (25.07) and fresh pod yield (15.13 tons ha-1). Whereas the maximum number of primary branches plant-1 (2.94) and secondary branches plant-1 (3.02) was recorded with double pinching. In case of interaction, the largest canopy spread (70.90 cm), the highest average pod length (11.38), number of pickings (27.67) and fresh pod yield (15.88 tons ha-1) was recorded in single pinched plants with nitrogen application in 6 split doses.Therefore, N application in six split doses at the rate 120 kg ha-1and single pinching could be recommended for higher yield and yield components of okra.

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10

LADYBIRD BEETLES (COLEOPTER: COCCINELLIDAE) FAUNA OF DISTRICT SWABI, NOWSHERA AND MARDAN


Zara Urooj and Asad Ali

LADYBIRD BEETLES (COLEOPTER: COCCINELLIDAE) FAUNA OF DISTRICT SWABI, NOWSHERA AND MARDAN


ABSTRACT:

There is a great economic importance of ladybirdbeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  as natural enemies. The present study reveals the predatory ladybird beetle (Coccinellidae; Coleoptera) fauna of district Swabi, Mardan and Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Ladybird beetle was collected from various localities of district Swabi, Mardan and Nowshera, from February to May, 2015. A total of 350 specimens were collected during these collection surveys  from different grasses,crops and general vegetation. The identification shows that there are 6 species of predatory ladybird beetle under 2 sub families (Coccinellidaeand Chilocorinae). In this research work the diagnostic characters of each species  along with genitalia description,coloured plates of adult specimens and genitalia structure are given. Taxonomic  discussion, history, taxon status, habitat, host and regional record are given for each species.

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