ISSN 2414-8245 (Online), ISSN 2518-6116 (Print)                                                              Free and Open Access



Year 2015 , Volume  1, Issue 1 (Published)
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1

APPLICATION OF ADMS-URBAN IN THE HOLY CITY OF MAKKAH – MODELLING PARTICULATE MATTERS (PART-1)


S. Munir, T. M. A. Habeebullah, S. S Gabr, E. Morsey, A. M.F. Mohammed, W. A. El-Saoud

APPLICATION OF ADMS-URBAN IN THE HOLY CITY OF MAKKAH – MODELLING PARTICULATE MATTERS (PART-1)


ABSTRACT:

Makkah experiences high levels of atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) emitted by various sources including re-suspension, construction-anddemolition activities, windblown particles and combustion of fossil fuels. During Hajj season and the month of Ramadhan millions of Muslims from around the world visit the Holy City of Makkah to perform Hajj and Umrah, which put extra burden on the available resources. Energy consumptions and the number of road vehicles are increased by several folds, resulting in a large amount of pollutant emissions in the city, which requires effective monitoring and modelling programmes. In this paper the emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter up to 10 µm (PM ) from the burning of natural gas, petrol, and diesel consumed in residential houses, road traffic and electricity generation are modelled in Makkah for year 2015, applying Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban). Natural gas is mostly consumed in residential houses and restaurants, whereas petrol and diesel are predominantly used for road traffic and electricity generation. The highest amount of PM 10 (tons) was emitted by the combustion of diesel used for electricity generation (330174), followed by diesel used in heavy duty vehicles (171), petrol used in light duty vehicles (48) and natural gas (< 1). Road traffic counts, fleet composition and vehicle speed data were not available in Makkah, therefore emissions were input as grid sources into ADMS-Urban. The outputs of ADMSUrban are presented as contour maps for various emissions and meteorological scenarios. ADMS-Urban model is run for the first time to model the levels of PM 10  in Makkah, which will help in determining the emission sources and lead to better air quality management in Makkah, especially during Hajj and Umrah seasons.

1-7 Download
2

EVALUATION OF CHIP BUD SETTLING OF SUGARCANE FOR ENHANCING YIELD TO VARIOUS ROW SPACING


S. Khalid , F. Munsif , A. Ali ,  M. Ismail , N. Haq  and M. Shahid

EVALUATION OF CHIP BUD SETTLING OF SUGARCANE FOR ENHANCING YIELD TO VARIOUS ROW SPACING


ABSTRACT:

Conventional planting, poor management practices and improper row spacing are the major constraints in the reduction of cane and sugar yield of sugarcane. A field experiment was conducted at Sugar Crop Research Institute Mardan, during 2012-13 to investigate the performance of chip buds settling of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) planted at different row spacing. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block designed having three replications. The experiment consisted of three row spacing (60 cm, 90 cm and 120 cm) having plot size of 5 m by 6.6 m (33 m 2 ). Number of tillers m -2 , number of internodes tiller -1 , plant height, leaf area tiller -1 , leaf area index, internode length and cane yield were significantly higher in 120 cm row spacing and the lesser number of tiller m -2 , number of internodes tiller -1 , plant height (cm), leaf area tiller -1 (cm 2 ), leaf area index, internode length (cm), cane yield (tons ha -1 ), were recorded for plots with 60 cm row spacing. Quality parameter such as brix %, Commercial Cane Sugar (CCS), Pol % and recovery % were not significantly influenced by row spacing however higher brix, CCS, Pol and recovery were recorded in 120 cm row spacing. It is concluded that chipbud settling of sugarcane cultivation with 120 cm rows apart are recommended under agrological condition of District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

8-13 Download
3

IMPACT OF NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND SOURCE-SINK REMOVAL ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT
 


FAZAL MUNSIF, MUHAMMAD ARIF, ASIF ALI KHAN,IKRAM ULLAH ZAHIR AFRIDI AND BUSHRA

IMPACT OF NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND SOURCE-SINK REMOVAL ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF WHEAT
 


ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of NK combinations and source-sink removal on yield and yield components of wheat at Agricultural Research Farm, Agricultural University Peshawar during winter 2006-07. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangement having three replications. The seed of wheat variety Saleem-2000 was sown in a plot size of 1.5 x 3 m 2  having 5 rows 3 meter long and 30 cm apart. Nitrogen and potash combinations were allotted to the main plots while source-sink removal treatment to the subplots. Flag leaf and upper 25% spike removal were practiced at anthesis stage. Only three central rows were focused for sinksource removal. Nitrogen application significantly increased productive tillers m -2  at maturity, grains spike -1 , thousand grain weight, plant height, biological yield and grain yield as compared to control plots where no nitrogen was applied. The effect of potash was non significant for the parameters studied. None of the parameters was found significant for Source-sink removal except grains spike -1 .   It is concluded that application of nitrogen at rate of 150 kg ha resulted in higher grain yield but it was at par with the grain yield produced by N applied at rate of 120 kg ha -1  and thus the lower level of nitrogen seems more economical and hence is recommended for obtaining higher yield of wheat in agro-ecological condition of Peshawar, Pakistan.

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4

COMPARISION OF FRUIT AND OIL YIELD OF DIFFERENT OLIVE CULTIVARS AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN


 A. A. Awan1, M. Abbas, W. Bilal, B. Ali, A. Wadood and M. Jehangir

COMPARISION OF FRUIT AND OIL YIELD OF DIFFERENT OLIVE CULTIVARS AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS OF PAKISTAN


ABSTRACT:

Comparison  of  fruit  and  oil  yield  of  different  olive  cultivars  was conducted  in  two  different  locations  during  the  year  2010.  Cultivars  Frantoio, Coratina  and  Ottobratica  at  Chakwal  and  Loralai  were  studied.  Different cultivars  of  olive  significantly  affected  fruit  yield  and  oil  yield  and  oil percentage.  Cultivars  under  observation  were  Frantoio,  Coratina  and Ottobratica  at  Chakwal  (Punjab)  and  Loralai  (Balochistan).  The  experiment was carried out in RCB design replicated three times. Different cultivars of olive significantly  affected  fruit  yield,  oil  yield  and  oil  content,  while  locations  and interaction  between  location  and  cultivars  were  not  significantly  affected  fruit and oil yield. Cultivar Frantoio produced higher fruit yield (34.16 kg tree-1), oil yield (5.46 L tree-1) and oil extraction (160 ml kg-1), while Ottobratica resulted in lower fruit yield (25.79 kg tree-1), oil yield (2.94 L tree-1), oil extraction (114 ml  kg-1).  Significantly  higher  oil  extraction  kg-1  was  recorded  in  Loralai  as compared  to  Chakwal.  In  case  of  combine  affect  of  cultivars  and  location, higher  oil  extraction  kg-1  (164  ml)  was  recorded  by  Frantoio  in  Loralai,  while lower  oil  extraction  kg-1  (111  ml)  was  recorded  by  Ottobratica  in  Chakwal location.

21-24 Download
5

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CEREAL APHIDS IN WHEAT CROP AT DISTRICT SWABI


 A. ALI  AND  H. ALI

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CEREAL APHIDS IN WHEAT CROP AT DISTRICT SWABI


ABSTRACT:

Being  serious  threats  to  cereal  crops,  the  estimation  of  aphid  population and its timely control is always a challenge for agriculture scientists. In order to evaluate population dynamics of aphid a survey was conducted in selected areas of district swabi.  For population dynamics, number of aphids were recorded on weekly  basis using diagonal methods by randomly selected 5 plants from each fields.  The  findings  of  the  study  indicated  that  aphid  attack  started  in  the  1st week of February and increased as the vegetative growth proceeded. Moreover, the aphid population was higher in the 2nd and 3rd week of March and decreased subsequently.

25-31 Download

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