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1
BIO-CHEMISTRY OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC CONTAINING MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL

Man-induced global warming is an increase in world temperature caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide. The concentrations of GHGs are increasing in the atmosphere and are preventing some of the heat from escaping into space.  Heat-related illnesses and deaths, severe flooding, droughts, and rising sea levels are some of the mentioned negative impacts from global warming. GHGs are the chemicals that keep heat from sunlight in the atmosphere and near the earth's surface, thereby contributing to global warming. The review focus on importance of bioethanol and its production from different lignocellulosic material.

FELEKE KURAZ AND OMPRAKASH SAHU 0-0 Download
2
DDT AND DDE CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD OF MEXICAN AMERICANS EXPOSED TO DDT IN MEXICO: THE 1999-2004 NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

  Concentrations of the pesticide DDT (dichloro diphenyltrichloroethane) and it metabolite DDE (dichloro diphenyldichloroethylene), in the blood of Mexican Americans, born in Mexico, were characterized. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 (unweighted N=648, population estimate=7,490,827).  While DDT was banned in Mexico during the year 2000, Mexican Americans who were born in Mexico in 2000 or in prior years and later immigrated to the United States (US) were still likely to have elevated DDT during the NHANES 1999-2004 study period. We sought to identify factors associated with p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE concentrations in blood in a population exposed to DDT. The proportion of participants with the isomer p,p’-DDT >0.086 ng/g was highest among women and participants with low acculturation scores, increased with age, and was higher in 1999-2000 than in 2003-2004. In a multiple regression analysis, the concentration of p,p’-DDT was significantly higher among participants who had lived in the US for less than 5 years when compared to those who had been in the US for more than 30 years. Concentrations of p,p’-DDE in blood were also associated with age, survey year, years in the US, and acculturation score in a multiple regression analysis. The decline in DDT and DDE concentrations in blood 3- 4 years after the banning of DDT in Mexico in 2000 suggests rapid change is possible once DDT exposure ends. DDT use remains a global public health problem.  Economical alternative pesticides are needed before all use of DDT will end. 

CHARLES J. EVERETT, OLIVIA M. THOMPSON AND CLARA E. DISMUKE 0-0 Download
3
EFFECT OF MARBLE MINES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN DISTRICT BUNER

The research was conducted in Bampokha District Buner to determine the effect of marble mining on soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from adjacent, 100 m and 200 m away from the marble mines at two depths 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. The results showed significant difference in surface and subsurface soil properties. Twenty three percent samples were loamy sand, 66 loam, 7 silt loam and 4 were sandy loam in texture. Almost all soil samples had alkaline pH (pH>7) and were non-saline in nature (EC <4 dSm-1) in both surface and subsurface soil. Surface soil have relatively higher pH (7.88), electrical conductivity (0.10 dsm-1), lime content (21.3%), organic matter (2.42%), total nitrogen (0.48%), AB-DTPA Ext.K (52.4 mg kg-1) and P (0.35 mg kg-1) than subsurface soil. Mean values of pH were high in soil at a distance of 200 m (8.1) as compared to adjacent (7.55) and 100 m (7.87) away soil. Electrical conductivity was high in adjacent soil (0.11dSm-1) as compared to 100 m (0.089 dSm-1) and 200 m away soil (0.095dSm-1). Lime content was high in soil at a distance of 200 m away soil (23.8%) than 100 m away soil (22.05 %) and adjacent soil (16.7 %). Similarly, K was high in soil at a distance of 200 m (60.4 mg kg-1) away from mine than 100 m away soil (48 mg kg-1) and adjacent soil (44.2 mg kg-1). Adjacent soil had high organic matter (3.32 %), P (60.4 mg kg-1), total nitrogen (0.66 mg kg-1) as compared to 100 m and 200 m away soil, respectively. 

SAJID ALI, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN KHATTAK, ROSHAN ALI, IBADULLAH, NISAR AHMAD, NAWAB ALI AND MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM 0-0 Download
4
EFFECT OF SLOPE POSITIONS ON SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY DISTRICT BUNER

The research work was conducted in Chagharzai valley of District Buner to determine the effect of slope positions on soil physico-chemical properties and micronutrients. Samples were collected from top-slope, mid- slope, and bottom-slope at two depths 0-15 and 15-30 cm. The results showed that there were significant differences among the physico-chemical properties and micronutrients of top-slope, mid-slope and bottom- slope positions. Almost all the soil samples had acidic pH and were non-saline (EC <4dSm-1) in both surface and sub-surface soil. Top slope had higher bulk density (1.60 g cm-3) than both Mid-slope (1.58 g cm-3) and Bottom-slope (1.53 g cm-3). Bottom-slope had high electrical conductivity (0.077 dSm-1), phosphorus (12.5 mg kg-1), potassium (76.85 mg kg-1), organic matter (2.13%), zinc (1.01 mg kg-1), iron (4.55 mg kg-1), manganese (3.23 mg kg-1), copper (1 mg kg-1) and clay (12.34%), while Top-slope had the lowest. Surface soil was significantly different from sub-surface soil in almost all physico-chemical properties and micronutrients. Sub- surface soil had the highest bulk density (1.57 g cm-3) and lower electrical conductivity (0.043 dSm-1). Surface soil had higher phosphorus (15.75 mg kg-1), potassium (80 mg kg-1), organic matter (1.12%), copper (0.98 mg kg-1), zinc (0.91 mg kg-1) and silt (21%) than sub-surface soil. There were difference in soil physico-chemical properties and micronutrients of the three slope positions.  From the study, it has been concluded that the position of  slope affected soil properties and fertility of sloping land. To control these adverse effects of slope conservation measures needs to be adopted such as afforestation, contouring, terracing, and selection of suitable crops for these sloping land.

IBADULLAH, FARMANULLAH, SAJID ALI, MUHAMMAD MEHRAN ANJUM, NAWAB ALI, IMRAN KHAN, KASHIF KHAN, ADNAN ANWAR KHAN, IMRAN AZEEM, SARA AND TASNEEM SHAH 0-0 Download
5
EVALUATION OF CANOLA GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN REGIMES FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS

Low canola yield is a common problem in Pakistan. In this context, introduction of improved varieties and suitable fertilization methods may offer a solution. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to assess the yield response of canola genotypes to different nitrogen regimes. The experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots having three replications. Two canola varieties, Zahoor and PARC were randomized in main plots while two nitrogen (N) application methods, soil and foliar with an unamended control were randomized in sub plots. The seeds were sown on 28th November. The yield was statistically different across the varieties and N application methods. Zahoor than PARC produced maximum biological yield (4676.9 kg ha-1) and seed yield (1520.1 kg ha-1). Whilst soil application of N was superior to foliar application for biological yield (5443.1 kg ha-1) and seed yield (1613.4 kg ha-1). However, interactions between varieties and N application methods had also significant effects on the yields. The soil N application to the both varieties gave the maximum yields. Therefore, it is concluded that the soil application of N to the varieties, Zahoor and PARC could be more effective to maximize yield under agro ecological conditions of Mardan.

MUHAMMAD TAUSEEF, SHAHID IQBAL, MUHAMMAD SALEEM, FAZAL MUNSIF, UMAR FAROOQ, KHAISTA REHMAN, MUHAMMAD ZAHID AND NASRULLAH 182-187 Download
6
IN VITRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF ALTERNARIA SP, THE CAUSE OF LEAF SPOT OF BITTER GOURD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L)

An in vitro study was conducted to determine the efficacy of different concentrations (0, 500 and 1000 ppm) of Dithane M-45 against six different isolates of Alternaria sp, the cause of leaf spot of bitter gourd, in the Department of Plant Pathology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2010. The experiment was conducted by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The responses of six different isolates (Yaseen Abad, Nasirpur, Taimalpura, Jabba Daudzai, Zakhi Miana and Ghari Momin) of Alternaria sp against different concentrations of Dithan M-45 were significantly different from one another. After 10 days of incubation at 250C, Dithane M-45 @ 1000 ppm greatly (66.3%) affected the mycelia growth of Taimalpura isolate of Alternaria sp. Moreover, Yaseen Abad isolate showed partial resistance at that concentration of Dithane M-45, which inhibited the mycelia growth by 41.4% as compared to check.

HAKIM KHAN , JAWAD UR REHMAN AND MARIA 0-0 Download
7
ISOLATED ROOT SYMBIOTIC FUNGI (RSF) FROM Drynaria quercifolia L. SHOW VARIOUS STRESS TOLERANCE EFFECTS ON PSB RC10 (PAGSANJAN) RICE (Oryza sativa L.) EXPOSED TO SNAP-PEG 8000 MILD DROUGHT

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) needs greater amount of water for its growth and metabolism as compared to other agricultural crops making it vulnerable to drought. Previous studies have suggested that symbiotic fungi can be utilized as exogenous producers of radical scavenging metabolites that enhance the adaptive ability of their host plants exposed to various environmental stresses such as drought. The actual stress-adaptive mechanisms of these root symbiotic fungal (RSF) isolates were tested on drought-stressed rice. The results of the study showed that the five RSF isolates have different mechanisms in protecting rice seedlings against drought. However, one RSF isolate stood out. The rice seedlings treated with the unidentified Mucoromycotina isolate, F9P2RSF21, appeared to have the tallest shoots, 100% germination rate, highest seedling vigor index (SVI) and drought tolerance index (DTI) together with the lowest drought susceptibility index (DSI). Statistical data also revealed that this isolate approximated the plant shoot length, germination rate, SVI, DTI and DSI of those rice seedlings grown in non-drought conditions. These drought parameters showed that the unidentified Mucoromycotina isolate, F9P2RSF21, is the best candidate of this study in combating the far-reaching effects of drought in agriculture. With the apparent consistency in the results pertaining to the potential drought stress tolerance capacity of RSF isolates on Drynaria quercifolia, this study may be a potential breakthrough in the field of agriculture and rice research.

JOMAR LOZANO ABAN AND ROLAND MAANO HIPOL 0-0 Download
8
OPTIMIZATION OF BREAD BAKING CONDITIONS IN SUPERHEATED STEAM OVEN USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

The objective of the study was to optimize the bread baking condition in superheated steam oven. Independent variables were the baking time (20, 25, and 30 min) and the baking temperature (180, 200 and 220°C). The bread quality parameter including moisture content, color and texture properties were measured. The response surface methodology was used for the optimization. The effect of baking condition on the parameters of bread were investigated using second- order central composite design. Baking temperature and time significantly affect moisture content and color of bread. Numerical optimization and superimposed contour plots suggested the optimum baking condition of bread to be 180 °C (temperature) and 20.77 minutes (time). The optimum moisture content, L* and hardness value are predicted to be 38.52 %, 76.24 and 13.26 N of the baked bread respectively. Baking bread in these conditions produce high quality bread in terms of moisture content, color and texture properties

RASHA MUSA OSMAN, TAJUL ARIS YANG, MUDAWI HASSAN ALI AND SAIFELDIN MOHAMED KHAIR* 0-0 Download
9
THE ROLE OF PRIVATE TOBACCO COMPANIES IN PROMOTION OF TOBACCO CROP AT MALAKAND DIVISION, PAKISTAN

Tobacco is one of the main cash crops of Pakistan. Certainly, the growers cultivate this crop for economic stability. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the role of private tobacco companies in promotion of tobacco crop at Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Multi-stage sampling technique applied for selection of the sample. Thus, total 135 tobacco growers were selected for this study by the appropriate methods. Meanwhile, the results reveal that maximum 82.96, 72.59, 85.18 and 65.18% tobacco growers were young and middle age (up to 50 years), educated up to bachelor degree, well-experience of farming practices up to 20-30 years and small size up to 2.5 acres respectively. Moreover, mostly 85.18, 85.18, 75.55 and 68.14% tobacco growers had provided facilities related seeds, nursery establishment, fertilizers and pesticides application respectively by private tobacco companies. Further, the response of tobacco growers recorded that seed facilities were excellent and good. While other remaining facilities (nursery establishment, fertilizer and pesticides applications, sticks, farm yard manure, wood, transportation, baskets and bags and heating pipes) were poor and fair. Additionally, maximum 98.51% tobacco growers reported that they achieved related and required information by communication tools pamphlets and posters. Beside these communication tools, almost all tobacco growers informed that mobile is a suitable communication tool for sharing new information. The present study concludes that majority tobacco growers were facing mainly issues related quality seed, fertilizers, and pesticides application and nursery establishment. Meanwhile, it is recommended that private tobacco companies and other concern organization had better provide the latest information, and appropriate facilities and services to tobacco growers related seeds, fertilizers and pesticides application, and nursery development by extension methods and approaches like field demonstration, field trip, model farm service and farmer field school.

BILAL AHMAD, BADAR NASEEM SIDDIQUI AND FAHEEM KHAN 0-0 Download

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